Five certainties

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The five certainties (Skt. pañcaniyata; Tib. ངེས་པ་ལྔ་, ngepa nga, Wyl. nges pa lnga) or perfections (Wyl. phun sum tshogs pa lnga) are:

  1. the certain or perfect teacher,
  2. the certain or perfect teaching,
  3. the certain or perfect place,
  4. the certain or perfect disciples and
  5. the certain or perfect time.

Further Reading