Difference between revisions of "Four maras"

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The '''four maras''' (Tib. ''dü shyi''; [[Wyl.]] ''bdud bzhi'') or obstructive forces are:
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The '''four maras''' (Skt. ''catvāri māra''; Tib. ''dü shyi''; [[Wyl.]] ''bdud bzhi'') are the four types of obstructive, 'demonic' forces which create obstacles to practitioners on the spiritual path. It is important to understand that they have no inherent existence and are only created by the mind.
#the '''mara of the aggregates''', referring to the [[five skandhas|five psychophysical aggregates]],
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#the '''mara of the [[destructive emotions]]''',
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There are two categorizations of the four maras:  
#the '''mara of the Lord of Death''', which is death itself, and
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*one according to the [[Sutrayana]], and
#the '''devaputra mara''', which means distraction and desire and attachment.
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*one according to the [[Vajrayana]], which is especially related to the teachings on the practice of [[chö]].
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==According to Sutrayana==
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#the '''mara of the [[five skandhas|aggregates]]''' (Skt. ''skhanda mara''), which symbolizes our clinging to forms, perceptions, and mental states as ‘real’;
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#the '''mara of the [[destructive emotions]]''' (Skt. ''klesha mara''), which symbolizes our addiction to habitual patterns of negative emotion;
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#the '''mara of the Lord of Death''' (Skt. ''yama mara''), which symbolizes both death itself, which cuts short our precious human birth, and also our fear of change, impermanence, and death; and
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#the '''mara of the child of the gods''' (Skt. ''devaputra mara''), which symbolizes our craving for pleasure, convenience, and ‘peace’.  
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==According to Vajrayana==
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[[Category:Key Terms]]
 
[[Category:Key Terms]]
 
[[Category:Enumerations]]
 
[[Category:Enumerations]]
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[[Category:Gods and Demons]]

Revision as of 17:06, 27 September 2008

The four maras (Skt. catvāri māra; Tib. dü shyi; Wyl. bdud bzhi) are the four types of obstructive, 'demonic' forces which create obstacles to practitioners on the spiritual path. It is important to understand that they have no inherent existence and are only created by the mind.

There are two categorizations of the four maras:

  • one according to the Sutrayana, and
  • one according to the Vajrayana, which is especially related to the teachings on the practice of chö.

According to Sutrayana

  1. the mara of the aggregates (Skt. skhanda mara), which symbolizes our clinging to forms, perceptions, and mental states as ‘real’;
  2. the mara of the destructive emotions (Skt. klesha mara), which symbolizes our addiction to habitual patterns of negative emotion;
  3. the mara of the Lord of Death (Skt. yama mara), which symbolizes both death itself, which cuts short our precious human birth, and also our fear of change, impermanence, and death; and
  4. the mara of the child of the gods (Skt. devaputra mara), which symbolizes our craving for pleasure, convenience, and ‘peace’.

According to Vajrayana