Four misapprehensions

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The four misapprehensions (Skt. viparyaya; Tib. ཕྱིན་ཅི་ལོག་པ་བཞི་, chin chi lokpa shyi, Wyl. phyin ci log pa bzhi) are four wrong views:

  1. mistaking things that are impermanent such as forms for something permanent
  2. mistaking suffering for happiness
  3. mistaking what has no identity of itself as having an identity
  4. mistaking what is impure for something pure

These are said to be the opposites of the four seals.

Alternative Translations

  • four mistakes (Dharmachakra Translation Committee)
  • four errors (Dharmachakra Translation Committee)
  • four misconceptions (84000)

Canonical Literature