Hundred peaceful and wrathful deities

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The Hundred Peaceful and Wrathful Deities (Tib. ཞི་ཁྲོ་རིགས་བརྒྱ་, Wyl. zhi khro rigs brgya) include the forty-two peaceful deities and fifty-eight wrathful deities. They feature in several practices and cycles of teachings, most notably the Tibetan Book of the Dead and the Guhyagarbha Tantra, which is the primary source describing this mandala.

Forty-two Peaceful Deities

Thangka representing the forty-two peaceful deities

The forty-two peaceful deities (Tib. shyiwé lha shyé nyi; Wyl. zhi ba'i lha zhe gnyis) are:

1) Samantabadra

Samantabhadra (Wyl. kun tu bzang po);

2) Samantabadri

Samantabhadri (Wyl. kun tu bzang mo);

3-7) The Five Male Buddhas of the Five Families

Buddhas of the five families (Skt. jinakula; Tib. རྒྱལ་བ་རིགས་ལྔ་, Wyl. rgyal ba rigs lnga) — the five peaceful buddhas of the sambhogakaya:

  1. Vairochana, buddha family
  2. Akshobhya, vajra family
  3. Ratnasambhava, ratna family
  4. Amitabha, padma family
  5. Amoghasiddhi, karma family

8-12) The Five Female Buddhas of the Five Families

The five female buddhas of the five families, also known as the five mothers (Wyl. yum lnga) are:

  1. Dhatvishvari (Skt.; Tib. དབྱིངས་ཕྱུག་མ་, Ying Chukma) also known as Vajra Datvishvari or White Tara, the consort of Vairochana, who represents the purity of the element space
  2. Buddhalochana (Skt.; Tib. སངས་རྒྱས་སྤྱན་, Sangyé chenma) the consort of Akshobhya, who represents the purity of the element earth
  3. Mamaki (Skt.; Tib. མ་མ་ཀི་, Mamaki) the consort of Ratnasambhava, who represents the purity of the element water
  4. Pandaravasini (Skt.; Tib. གོས་དཀར་མོ་, Gökarmo) the consort of Amitabha, who represents the purity of the element fire
  5. Samayatara (Skt.; Tib. དམ་ཚིག་སྒྲོལ་མ་, Damtsik Drolma) also known as Green Tara, the consort of Amoghasiddhi, who represents the purity of the element wind

13-20) The Eight Male Bodhisattvas

Eight Great Bodhisattvas, or 'Eight Close Sons' (Skt. aṣṭa utaputra; Tib. ཉེ་བའི་སྲས་བརྒྱད་, Wyl. nye ba'i sras brgyad) — the main bodhisattvas in the retinue of Buddha Shakyamuni:

Tibetan.png
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Read more about them

21-28) The Eight Female Bodhisattvas

The eight female bodhisattvas (Wyl. byang chub sems ma brgyad) are also referred to as the eight offering goddesses. They are the consorts of the eight great bodhisattvas:

  1. Goddess of Beauty (Skt. Lāsyā; Tib. Gekpama; Wyl. sgeg pa ma) the consort of Kshitigarbha
  2. Goddess of Garlands (Skt. Mālyā; Tib. Trengwama; Wyl. phreng ba ma) the consort of Akashagarbha
  3. Goddess of Song (Skt. Gītā; Tib. Luma; Wyl. glu ma) the consort of Vajrapani
  4. Goddess of Dance (Skt. Nirtī; Tib. Garma; Wyl. gar ma) the consort of Avalokiteshvara
  5. Goddess of Flowers (Skt. Pūṣpā; Tib. Metokma Wyl. me tog ma) the consort of Sarvanivaranavishkambhin
  6. Goddess of Incense (Skt. Dhupā; Tib. Dukpöma; Wyl. bdu spos ma) the consort of Maitreya
  7. Goddess of Light (Skt. Alokā; Tib. Marmema or Nangselma; Wyl. mar me ma) the consort of Samantabhadra
  8. Goddess of Perfume (Skt. Gandhā; Tib. Drichabma; Wyl. dri chab ma) the consort of Mañjushri

Symbolically they represent the pure state of sense objects.

29-34) The Six Munis

The Six Munis © 2004 Shechen Archives

The Six Munis (Skt.; Tib. Tubpa Druk; Tib. ཐུབ་པ་དྲུག་, Wyl. thub pa drug) are the supreme nirmanakaya buddhas for each of the six classes of beings. They are:

  1. Indra Kaushika (Skt.; Tib. དབང་པོ་བརྒྱ་བྱིན་, Wangpo Gyajin; Wyl. dbang po brgya byin) for the god realms
  2. Vemachitra (Skt. Vemacitra; Tib. ཐགས་བཟང་རིས་, Taksangri; Wyl. thags bzang ris) for the demi-gods or asura realms
  3. Shakyamuni (Tib. ཤཱཀྱ་ཐབ་པ་, Wyl. shAkya thub pa) for the human realm
  4. Shravasingha or Dhruvasiṃha (Skt.; Tib. སེང་གེ་རབ་བརྟན་, Sengé Rabten; Wyl. seng ge rab brtan) for the animal realm
  5. Jvālamukhadeva (Skt.; Tib. ཁ་འབར་དེ་བ་, Khabar Dewa; Wyl. kha ‘bar de ba) for the preta realms
  6. Dharmarāja (Skt.; Tib. ཆོས་ཀྱི་རྒྱལ་པོ་, Chökyi Gyalpo; Wyl. chos kyi rgyal po) for the hell realms

35-38) The Four Male Gate Keepers

The four male gatekeepers (Wyl. sgo ba yab bzhi) are:

  1. Achala, guarding the east gate (or Vijaya, or Mahabala?)
  2. Yamantaka, guarding the south gate
  3. Hayagriva, guarding the west gate
  4. Amritakundali, guarding the north gate

39-42) The Four Female Gate Keepers

The four female gatekeepers (Wyl. sgo ma bzhi) are:

  1. Ankusha (Skt. Aṅkuśā; Wyl. lcags kyu ma or rta gdong ma) also called 'Horse Face' or 'Iron Hook', guarding the east gate and in union with Vijaya (or Achala?)
  2. Pasha (Skt. Pāśā; Wyl. zhags pa ma or phag gdong ma) also called 'Sow Face' or 'the Noose', guarding the south gate and in union with Yamantaka
  3. Shrinkhala (Skt. Śriṅkhalā; Wyl. lcags sgrog ma or seng gdong ma) also called 'Lion Face' or 'Iron Chain', guarding the west gate and in union with Hayagriva
  4. Ghanta (Skt. Ghaṇtā; Wyl. dril bu ma or spyang gdong ma) also called 'Wolf Face' or 'the Bell', guarding the north gate and in union with Amritakundali.


Fifty-eight Wrathful Deities

The fifty-eight wrathful deities are:

1-10) The Five Wrathful Herukas and their Five Consorts

The five wrathful herukas and their five consorts—the wrathful aspect of the buddhas of the five families and of the five female buddhas—are:

  1. Buddhaheruka and his consort Buddhakrodhishvari;
  2. Vajraheruka and his consort Vajrarodhishvari;
  3. Ratnaheruka and his consort Ratnarodhishvari;
  4. Padmaheruka and his consort Padmakrodhishvari and
  5. Karmaheruka and his consort Karmakrodhishvari.


11-18) The Eight Wrathful Females

The eight wrathful females or eight gaurima (Skt. gaurī; Tib. gaurima; Wyl. gau ri ma brgyad) are:

  1. Gauri (Skt. Gaurī; Wyl. ko'u ri)
  2. Pukkasi (Skt. Pukkasī; Wyl. pus ka si)
  3. Chaurimatrika (Skt. Caurī; Wyl. tso'u ri)
  4. Ghasmari (Skt. Ghasmarī; Wyl. kas ma ri)
  5. Pramoha (Skt. Pramohā; Wyl. pra mo)
  6. Chandali (Skt. Caṇḍālī; Wyl. tsan dha li)
  7. Vetali (Skt. Vetālī; Wyl. be'e ta li)
  8. Shmashani (Skt. Śmaśānī; Wyl. sme sha ni)

19-26) The Eight Tramen

The eight tramen (Wyl. phra men brgyad; Skt. piśacī), or eight singhama (Wyl. sim ha brgyad) are animal-headed deities (tramen literally means 'hybrid'). They are:

  1. Simhamukha (Skt. Siṃhamukhā)
  2. Vyaghrimukha (Skt. Vyāghramukhā)
  3. Srigalamukha (Skt. Śṛgālamukhā)
  4. Shvanamukha (Skt. Śvanmukhā)
  5. Gridhamukha (Skt. Gṛdhramukhā)
  6. Kangkamukha (Skt. Kaṅkamukhā; Wyl. kang ka mu kha), dark red in colour with a kite's/heron's (?) (Skt. kaṅka) head
  7. Kakamukha (Skt. Kākamukhā)
  8. Ulumukha (Skt. Ulūkamukhā)

27-30) The Four Female Gatekeepers

The four female gatekeepers (Wyl. sgo ma bzhi) are:

  1. Ankusha (Skt. Aṅkuśā; Wyl. lcags kyu ma or rta gdong ma) also called 'Horse Face' or 'Iron Hook', guarding the east gate and in union with Vijaya (or Achala?)
  2. Pasha (Skt. Pāśā; Wyl. zhags pa ma or phag gdong ma) also called 'Sow Face' or 'the Noose', guarding the south gate and in union with Yamantaka
  3. Shrinkhala (Skt. Śriṅkhalā; Wyl. lcags sgrog ma or seng gdong ma) also called 'Lion Face' or 'Iron Chain', guarding the west gate and in union with Hayagriva
  4. Ghanta (Skt. Ghaṇtā; Wyl. dril bu ma or spyang gdong ma) also called 'Wolf Face' or 'the Bell', guarding the north gate and in union with Amritakundali.

31-58) The Twenty-eight Ishvaris

The twenty-eight ishvaris (Skt. īśvarī; Tib. wangchukma nyer gyé; Wyl. dbang phyug ma nyer brgyad)

The twenty-eight ishvaris are composed of four groups of six yoginis corresponding to the four activities, and of the four female outer-gate keepers:


1. The six yoginis corresponding to the activity of pacifying:
White ishvaris w.jpg

  • Rakshasi (white)
  • Brahmi
  • Mahadevi
  • Lobha
  • Kumari
  • Indrani


2. The six yoginis corresponding to the activity of increasing:
Yellow ishvaris w.jpg

  • Vajra
  • Shanti
  • Amrita
  • Chandra
  • Danda
  • Rakshasi (dark yellow)


3. The six yoginis corresponding to the activity of magnetizing:
Red ishvaris w.jpg

  • Bhakshini
  • Rati
  • Mahabala
  • Rakshasi (pale red)
  • Kama
  • Vasuraksha


4. The six yoginis corresponding to the activity of subjugating:
Green ishvaris w.jpg

  • Vayudevi
  • Nari
  • Varahi
  • Nanda
  • Mahahastini
  • Varunadevi


5. The last group is composed of the four female outer-gate keepers.
4 female gatekeepers.jpg

59-60) Chemchok Heruka and his Consort

The fifty-eight wrathful deities become sixty when you add Chemchok Heruka (Wyl. che mchog heruka) and his consort Krodhishvari, who are the wrathful aspects of Samantabhadra and Samantabhadri.

Further Reading