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A phenomenon (Skt. dharma; Tib. ཆོས་, chö, Wyl. chos) in pramana is defined as "that which holds its own essence".[1]


  • outer phenomena (ཕྱིའི་ཆོས་, Wyl. phyi'i chos)
  • inner phenomena (ནང་གི་ཆོས་, Wyl. nang gi chos)


  1. Tib. རང་གི་ངོ་བོ་འཛིན་པ་, rang gi ngowo dzinpa, Wyl. rang gi ngo bo 'dzin pa

Alternative Translations

  • constituents of reality (Dharma Publishing)