Ten paramitas

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The ten paramitas (Skt. daśa pāramitā; Tib. ཕ་རོལ་ཏུ་ཕྱིན་པ་བཅུ་, pa röl tu chin pa chu, Wyl. pha rol tu phyin pa bcu) are:

The six paramitas

  1. Generosity (Skt. dāna; Tib. སྦྱིན་པ་, jinpa): to cultivate the attitude of generosity.
  2. Discipline (Skt. śīla; Tib. ཚུལ་ཁྲིམས་, tsultrim): refraining from harm.
  3. Patience (Skt. kṣānti; Tib. བཟོད་པ་, zöpa): the ability not to be perturbed by anything.
  4. Diligence (Skt. vīrya; Tib. བརྩོན་འགྲུས་, tsöndrü): to find joy in what is virtuous, positive or wholesome.
  5. Meditative concentration (Skt. dhyāna; Tib. བསམ་གཏན་, samten): not to be distracted.
  6. Wisdom (Skt. prajñā; Tib. ཤེས་རབ་, sherab): the perfect discrimination of phenomena, all knowable things.

plus:

7.  Skilful means (Skt. upāyakauśalapāramitā; Tib. ཐབས་ལ་མཁས་པ་, tap la khepa; Wyl. thabs la mkhas pa),
8.  Strength (Skt. balapāramitā; Tib. སྟོབས་, top; Wyl. stobs),
9.  Aspiration prayers (Skt. praṇidhānapāramitā; Tib. སྨོན་ལམ་, mönlam; Wyl. smon lam) and
10. Primordial wisdom (Skt. jñānapāramitā; Tib. ཡེ་ཤེས་, yeshe; Wyl. ye shes).

These last four paramitas are aspects of the sixth paramita—the paramita of wisdom—and are not added to the first six. The way of dividing the paramitas into ten is particularly related to the teachings on the bhumis which describe the progression of a bodhisattva where each of the paramitas are successively perfected on each of the ten bhumis.