Three modes

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The three modes (Skt. trairūpya; Tib. ཚུལ་གསུམ་; tsul sum, Wyl. tshul gsum) of a logical argument are as follows:

  1. the reason must be a feature of the subject (Skt. pakṣadharma; Tib. ཕྱོགས་ཆོས་, Wyl. phyogs chos)
  2. there must be positive logical pervasion (or positive concomitance or entailment) (Skt. anvayavyāpti; Tib. རྗེས་ཁྱབ་, Wyl. rjes khyab)
  3. there must be negative logical pervasion (or negative concomitance) (Skt. vyatirekavyāpti; Tib. ལྡོག་ཁྱབ་, Wyl. ldog khyab)

Alternative Translations

  • Threefold criteria