Three yanas of vedic asceticism
Three inner yanas of vedic asceticism (Tib. དཀའ་ཐུབ་རིག་བྱེད་ཀྱི་ཐེག་པ་གསུམ་, katup rigjé kyi tekpa sum; Wyl. dka' thub rig byed kyi theg pa gsum) — these are the yanas based on the three outer classes of tantra:
Alak Zenkar Rinpoche says, "You might wonder why are these called ‘vehicles of Vedic-like ascetism.’ It is because the three outer classes of tantra stress aspects of ascetic conduct, such as ritual purification and cleanliness, and in this respect they are similar to the Vedic tradition of the brahmins."
- An alternative translation sometimes given is ‘the inner vehicle of gaining awareness through austerities’ but that would not accord with Alak Zenkar Rinpoche’s explanation. See A Brief Presentation of the Nine Yanas by Alak Zenkar Rinpoche