Vehicle of characteristics
The Vehicle of Characteristics (Skt. lakṣaṇayāna; Tib. རྒྱུ་མཚན་ཉིད་ཐེག་པ་, gyumtsen nyi tekpa, Wyl. rgyu mtshan nyid theg pa), or Causal Vehicle (Skt. hetuyāna; Wyl. rgyu'i theg pa), refers to the Sutrayana and thus includes the shravaka yana, the pratyekabuddha yana and the Mahayana. It is called a vehicle of characteristics because it has all the characteristics of a path that is a direct cause for bringing about the ultimate fruition, the level of buddhahood.
- The causal vehicles are so called because of accepting a sequence of cause and effect, asserting that buddhahood is attained by increasing the qualities of the buddha nature which is merely present as a seed, through the circumstance of the two accumulations.
- Expository vehicle of causality (Padmakara, Treasury of Precious Qualities)
- Philosophical vehicle
- A Brief Presentation of the Nine Yanas by Alak Zenkar Rinpoche
- Padmasambhava & Jamgön Kongtrul, The Light of Wisdom Vol. One, translated by Erik Pema Kunsang (Boudhanath: Rangjung Yeshe Publications, 1999), pages 152.