Eleven virtuous states

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The eleven virtuous states (Skt. ekadaśa kuśala; Tib. དགེ་བའི་སེམས་བྱུང་བཅུ་གཅིག་, gewé semjung chuchik, Wyl. dge ba’i sems byung bcu gcig) are a category of mental states among the fifty-one mental states, so-called because they are virtuous states of mind or factors that can act as antidotes against destructive emotions. They are:

  1. Faith (Skt. śraddhā; Tib. དད་པ་)
  2. Dignity (Skt. hri; Tib. ངོ་ཚ་ཤེས་པ་)
  3. Propriety (Skt. apatrāpya; Tib. ཁྲེལ་ཡོད་པ་)
  4. Nonattachment (Skt. alobha; Tib. མ་ཆགས་པ་)
  5. Nonaggression (Skt. adveṣa; Tib. ཞེས་སྡང་མེད་པ་)
  6. Nondelusion (Skt. amoha; Tib. གཏི་མུག་མེད་པ་)
  7. Diligence (Skt. vīrya; Tib. བརྩོན་འགྲུས་)
  8. Pliancy or flexibility (Skt. praśrabdhi; Tib. ཤིན་ཏུ་སྦྱང་བ་)
  9. Conscientiousness (Skt. apramāda; Tib. བག་ཡོད་པ་)
  10. Equanimity or evenness (Skt. upekṣā; Tib. བཏང་སྙོམས་)
  11. Nonviolence (Skt. avihiṃsā; Tib. རྣམ་པར་མི་འཚེ་བ་)

Further Reading

  • Sthiramati. An Explanation of the Thirty [Stanzas] (Skt. Triṃśikābhāṣya; Wyl. sum cu pa'i bshad pa). In Philippe Cornu, Vasubandhu, Cinq traités sur l'esprit seulement (Paris: Fayard, 2008), pages 227-230.