Difference between revisions of "Four Hundred Verses"

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[[Image:Aryadeva.JPG|frame|'''Aryadeva''']]
 
[[Image:Aryadeva.JPG|frame|'''Aryadeva''']]
'''Four Hundred Verses''' (Skt. ''Catuḥśataka''; Tib. བཞི་བརྒྱ་པ་, Wyl. ''bzhi brgya pa'') - an important [[Madhyamika]] treatise by [[Aryadeva]]. It is included among the so-called "[[Thirteen great texts]]", which form the core of the curriculum in most [[shedra]]s and on which [[Khenpo Shenga]] provided commentaries.
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'''Four Hundred Verses''' (Skt. ''Catuḥśataka''; Tib. བཞི་བརྒྱ་པ་, [[Wyl.]] ''bzhi brgya pa'', full title Tib. རྣལ་འབྱོར་སྤྱོད་པ་བཞི་བརྒྱ་པ་, Wyl. ''rnal 'byor spyod pa bzhi brgya pa'') an important [[Madhyamika]] [[treatise]] by [[Aryadeva]]. It is included among the so-called "[[Thirteen great texts]]", which form the core of the curriculum in most [[shedra]]s and on which [[Khenpo Shenga]] provided commentaries.
  
 +
==Outline==
 +
The text has 16 chapters:
 +
#Showing the Method for Rejecting Belief in Permanence (༈ རྟག་པར་འཛིན་པ་སྤང་བའི་ཐབས་)
 +
#Showing the Method for Rejecting Belief in Pleasure (བདེ་བར་འཛིན་པ་སྤང་བའི་ཐབས་)
 +
#Showing the Method for Rejecting Belief in Purity (གཙང་བར་འཛིན་པ་ཕྱིན་ཅི་ལོག་སྤང་བའི་ཐབས་)
 +
#Showing the Method for Rejecting Egotism (བདག་ཏུ་འཛིན་པ་སྤང་བའི་ཐབས་)
 +
#Showing the Acts of a [[Bodhisattva]] (བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའི་སྤྱོད་པ་)
 +
#Showing the Method for Rejecting the Afflictions (ཉོན་མོངས་པ་སྤང་བའི་ཐབས་)
 +
#How to Reject Attachment to the Sensual Pleasures People Desire (མེ་ཉིད་ཀྱིས་འདོད་པའི་ལོངས་སྤྱོད་ལ་ཞེན་པ་སྤང་བའི་ཐབས་)
 +
#The Conduct of the Student (སློབ་མ་ཡོངས་སུ་སྦྱང་བ་)
 +
#Showing the Realization of the Refutation of Permanent Things (དངོས་པོ་རྟག་པ་དགག་པ་བསྒོམ་པ་)
 +
#Showing the Realization of the Refutation of the Self (བདག་དགག་པ་བསྒོམ་པ་)
 +
#Showing the Realization of the Refutation of Permanent Time (དུས་དགག་པ་བསྒོམ་པ་)
 +
#Showing the Realization of the Refutation of Speculative Views (ལྟ་བ་དགག་པ་བསྒོམ་པ་)
 +
#Showing the Realization of the Refutation of the Sense Faculties and Their Objects (དབང་པོ་དང་དོན་དགག་པ་བསྒོམ་པ་)
 +
#Showing the Realization of the Refutation of Belief in Extreme Views (མཐར་འཛིན་པ་དགག་པ་བསྒོམ་པ་)
 +
#Showing the Realization of the Refutation of [[Conditioned]] Things (འདུས་བྱས་ཀྱི་དོན་དགག་པ་བསྒོམ་པ་)
 +
#Showing the Discussion between the Teacher and his Student (སློབ་དཔོན་དང་སློབ་མ་རྣམ་པར་གཏན་ལ་དབབ་པ།)
 +
 +
==Text==
 +
Although the text was originally written in Sanskrit, and later translated into Chinese (the last eight chapters only) and Tibetan, only fragments of the Sanskrit text now remain.<ref>Karen Lang, ''Aryadeva's Catuhsataka: On the Bodhisattva's Cultivation of Merit and Knowledge''</ref>
 +
 +
The Tibetan text can be found in the [[Tengyur]], [[Toh]] 3865
 +
*{{TBRCW|O00CR0008|O00CR000800CR034088$W23702|བསྟན་བཅོས་བཞི་བརྒྱ་པ་ཞེས་བྱ་བའི་ཚིག་ལེའུར་བྱས་པ་, ''bstan bcos bzhi brgya pa zhes bya ba'i tshig le'ur byas pa''}}
 +
*{{SL|49ceab11-d55d-47f6-a3a4-7eb279e9e534|Sakya Library}}
 +
 +
English translations:
 +
*Ruth Sonam, ''Yogic Deeds of Bodhisattvas: Gyel-tsap on Aryadeva's Four Hundred'' with commentary by [[Geshe Sonam Rinchen]] (Ithaca: Snow Lion, 1994), which includes Gyaltsab Darma Rinchen's commentary (see below). Republished as ''Aryadeva's Four Hundred Stanzas on the Middle Way: With Commentary by Gyel-Tsap'' (Snow Lion 2008)
 +
*Karen Lang, ''Aryadeva's Catuhsataka: On the Bodhisattva's Cultivation of Merit and Knowledge'' (Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, 1986). Available [https://archive.org/details/KARENLANGARYADEVASCATUHSATAKAONBODHISATVASCULTIVATIONOFMERITANKNOWLEDGE1986/page/n1/mode/2up here as open source].
  
==Outlines==
 
The text has 16 chapters:
 
{| class="wikitable" style="color:black;background-color:#f7f7e7;" cellspacing="5" border="0" text-align:left,top"
 
|+
 
|valign="top"|
 
#rtag par 'dzin pa spang ba'i thabs
 
#bde bar 'dzin pa spang ba'i thabs
 
#gtsang bar 'dzin pa phyin ci log spang ba'i thabs
 
#bdag tu 'dzin pa spang ba'i thabs
 
#byang chub sems dpa'i spyod pa
 
#nyon mongs pa spang ba'i thabs
 
#me nyid kyis 'dod pa'i longs spyod la zhen pa spang ba'i thabs
 
#slob ma yongs su sbyang ba
 
#dngos po rtag pa dgag pa bsgom pa
 
#bdag dgag pa bsgom pa
 
#dus dgag pa bsgom pa
 
#lta ba dgag pa bsgom pa
 
#dbang po dang don dgag pa bsgom pa
 
#mthar 'dzin pa dgag pa bsgom pa
 
#'dus byas kyi don dgag pa bsgom pa
 
#slob dpon dang slob ma rnam par gtan la dbab pa
 
|valign="top"|
 
::<big>༈ རྟག་པར་འཛིན་པ་སྤང་བའི་ཐབས་<br>
 
::བདེ་བར་འཛིན་པ་སྤང་བའི་ཐབས་<br>
 
::གཙང་བར་འཛིན་པ་ཕྱིན་ཅི་ལོག་སྤང་བའི་ཐབས་<br>
 
::བདག་ཏུ་འཛིན་པ་སྤང་བའི་ཐབས་<br>
 
::བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའི་སྤྱོད་པ་<br>
 
::ཉོན་མོངས་པ་སྤང་བའི་ཐབས་<br>
 
::མེ་ཉིད་ཀྱིས་འདོད་པའི་ལོངས་སྤྱོད་ལ་ཞེན་པ་སྤང་བའི་ཐབས་<br>
 
::སློབ་མ་ཡོངས་སུ་སྦྱང་བ་<br>
 
::དངོས་པོ་རྟག་པ་དགག་པ་བསྒོམ་པ་<br>
 
::བདག་དགག་པ་བསྒོམ་པ་<br>
 
::དུས་དགག་པ་བསྒོམ་པ་<br>
 
::ལྟ་བ་དགག་པ་བསྒོམ་པ་<br>
 
::དབང་པོ་དང་དོན་དགག་པ་བསྒོམ་པ་<br>
 
::མཐར་འཛིན་པ་དགག་པ་བསྒོམ་པ་<br>
 
::འདུས་བྱས་ཀྱི་དོན་དགག་པ་བསྒོམ་པ་<br>
 
::སློབ་དཔོན་དང་སློབ་མ་རྣམ་པར་གཏན་ལ་དབབ་པ།</big><br>
 
|}
 
{{TBRCW|O00CR0008|O00CR000800CR034088$W23702|བསྟན་བཅོས་བཞི་བརྒྱ་པ་ཞེས་བྱ་བའི་ཚིག་ལེའུར་བྱས་པ་, ''bstan bcos bzhi brgya pa zhes bya ba'i tshig le'ur byas pa''}}
 
 
==Commentaries==
 
==Commentaries==
 
===Indian===
 
===Indian===
[[Chandrakirti]] wrote a commentary called simply ''[[Commentary on the Four Hundred Verses on the Yogic Deeds of Bodhisattvas]]'':
+
[[Chandrakirti]] wrote a commentary called simply ''[[Commentary on the Four Hundred Verses on the Yogic Deeds of Bodhisattvas]]''.
:{{TBRCW|O00CR0008|O00CR000800CR034139$W23702| བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའི་རྣལ་འབྱོར་སྤྱོད་པ་བཞི་བརྒྱ་པའི་རྒྱ་ཆེར་འགྲེལ་པ་, ''byang chub sems dpa'i rnal 'byor spyod pa bzhi brgya pa'i rgya cher 'grel pa''}}
 
  
 
===Tibetan===
 
===Tibetan===
 
Many Tibetan masters wrote commentaries on this text, including: [[Khenpo Ngawang Palzang]], [[Pöpa Tulku Dongak Tenpé Nyima]], [[Rendawa Shyönnu Lodrö]], [[Gyaltsab Darma Rinchen]] and [[Khenpo Shenga]].
 
Many Tibetan masters wrote commentaries on this text, including: [[Khenpo Ngawang Palzang]], [[Pöpa Tulku Dongak Tenpé Nyima]], [[Rendawa Shyönnu Lodrö]], [[Gyaltsab Darma Rinchen]] and [[Khenpo Shenga]].
 
==Translations==
 
*Ruth Sonam, ''Yogic Deeds of Bodhisattvas: Gyel-tsap on Aryadeva's Four Hundred'', Snow Lion, 1994
 
*Karen Lang, ''Aryadeva's Catuhsataka: On the Bodhisattva's Cultivation of Merit and Knowledge''. Copenhaven: Akademisk Forlag, 1986
 
  
 
==Quotations==
 
==Quotations==
Line 59: Line 43:
 
{{:Quotations: Aryadeva, Four Hundred Verses, Turn away from non-virtue}}
 
{{:Quotations: Aryadeva, Four Hundred Verses, Turn away from non-virtue}}
 
{{:Quotations: Aryadeva, Four Hundred Verses, Emptiness of one is everything}}
 
{{:Quotations: Aryadeva, Four Hundred Verses, Emptiness of one is everything}}
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==References==
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<small><references/></small>
  
 
[[Category:Texts]]
 
[[Category:Texts]]
 +
[[Category:Shastras]]
 
[[Category:Madhyamika]]
 
[[Category:Madhyamika]]

Latest revision as of 22:39, 27 November 2020

Aryadeva

Four Hundred Verses (Skt. Catuḥśataka; Tib. བཞི་བརྒྱ་པ་, Wyl. bzhi brgya pa, full title Tib. རྣལ་འབྱོར་སྤྱོད་པ་བཞི་བརྒྱ་པ་, Wyl. rnal 'byor spyod pa bzhi brgya pa) — an important Madhyamika treatise by Aryadeva. It is included among the so-called "Thirteen great texts", which form the core of the curriculum in most shedras and on which Khenpo Shenga provided commentaries.

Outline

The text has 16 chapters:

  1. Showing the Method for Rejecting Belief in Permanence (༈ རྟག་པར་འཛིན་པ་སྤང་བའི་ཐབས་)
  2. Showing the Method for Rejecting Belief in Pleasure (བདེ་བར་འཛིན་པ་སྤང་བའི་ཐབས་)
  3. Showing the Method for Rejecting Belief in Purity (གཙང་བར་འཛིན་པ་ཕྱིན་ཅི་ལོག་སྤང་བའི་ཐབས་)
  4. Showing the Method for Rejecting Egotism (བདག་ཏུ་འཛིན་པ་སྤང་བའི་ཐབས་)
  5. Showing the Acts of a Bodhisattva (བྱང་ཆུབ་སེམས་དཔའི་སྤྱོད་པ་)
  6. Showing the Method for Rejecting the Afflictions (ཉོན་མོངས་པ་སྤང་བའི་ཐབས་)
  7. How to Reject Attachment to the Sensual Pleasures People Desire (མེ་ཉིད་ཀྱིས་འདོད་པའི་ལོངས་སྤྱོད་ལ་ཞེན་པ་སྤང་བའི་ཐབས་)
  8. The Conduct of the Student (སློབ་མ་ཡོངས་སུ་སྦྱང་བ་)
  9. Showing the Realization of the Refutation of Permanent Things (དངོས་པོ་རྟག་པ་དགག་པ་བསྒོམ་པ་)
  10. Showing the Realization of the Refutation of the Self (བདག་དགག་པ་བསྒོམ་པ་)
  11. Showing the Realization of the Refutation of Permanent Time (དུས་དགག་པ་བསྒོམ་པ་)
  12. Showing the Realization of the Refutation of Speculative Views (ལྟ་བ་དགག་པ་བསྒོམ་པ་)
  13. Showing the Realization of the Refutation of the Sense Faculties and Their Objects (དབང་པོ་དང་དོན་དགག་པ་བསྒོམ་པ་)
  14. Showing the Realization of the Refutation of Belief in Extreme Views (མཐར་འཛིན་པ་དགག་པ་བསྒོམ་པ་)
  15. Showing the Realization of the Refutation of Conditioned Things (འདུས་བྱས་ཀྱི་དོན་དགག་པ་བསྒོམ་པ་)
  16. Showing the Discussion between the Teacher and his Student (སློབ་དཔོན་དང་སློབ་མ་རྣམ་པར་གཏན་ལ་དབབ་པ།)

Text

Although the text was originally written in Sanskrit, and later translated into Chinese (the last eight chapters only) and Tibetan, only fragments of the Sanskrit text now remain.[1]

The Tibetan text can be found in the Tengyur, Toh 3865

English translations:

  • Ruth Sonam, Yogic Deeds of Bodhisattvas: Gyel-tsap on Aryadeva's Four Hundred with commentary by Geshe Sonam Rinchen (Ithaca: Snow Lion, 1994), which includes Gyaltsab Darma Rinchen's commentary (see below). Republished as Aryadeva's Four Hundred Stanzas on the Middle Way: With Commentary by Gyel-Tsap (Snow Lion 2008)
  • Karen Lang, Aryadeva's Catuhsataka: On the Bodhisattva's Cultivation of Merit and Knowledge (Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, 1986). Available here as open source.

Commentaries

Indian

Chandrakirti wrote a commentary called simply Commentary on the Four Hundred Verses on the Yogic Deeds of Bodhisattvas.

Tibetan

Many Tibetan masters wrote commentaries on this text, including: Khenpo Ngawang Palzang, Pöpa Tulku Dongak Tenpé Nyima, Rendawa Shyönnu Lodrö, Gyaltsab Darma Rinchen and Khenpo Shenga.

Quotations

བསོད་ནམས་ཆུང་ངུ་ཆོས་འདི་ལ། །

ཐེ་ཚོམ་ཟ་བར་ཡང་མི་འགྱུར། །
ཐེ་ཚོམ་ཟ་བར་ཙམ་ཞིག་གིས། །

སྲིད་པ་ཧྲུལ་པོར་བྱས་པར་འགྱུར། །

Those with little merit will not
Even wonder about these things.
But merely to entertain doubts
About samsara will make it fall apart.

Aryadeva, Four Hundred Verses, VIII, 5


བསོད་ནམས་མིན་པ་དང་པོར་བཟློག །

བར་དུ་བདག་ནི་བཟློག་པ་དང༌། །
ཕྱི་ནས་ལྟ་བ་ཀུན་བཟློག་པ། །

གང་གིས་ཤེས་དེ་མཁས་པ་ཡིན། །

At first, turn away from non-virtue,
In the middle, dispel misconceptions of self,
Finally, go beyond all philosophical views—
One who understands this is wise indeed.

Āryadeva, Four Hundred Verses, VIII, 15


དངོས་པོ་གཅིག་གི་ལྟ་པོ་གང༌། །

དེ་ནི་ཀུན་གྱི་ལྟ་པོར་བཤད། །
གཅིག་གི་སྟོང་ཉིད་གང་ཡིན་པ། །

དེ་ནི་ཀུན་གྱི་སྟོང་པ་ཉིད། །

Whoever sees the nature of one thing
Is said to see the nature of everything.
For the emptiness of one thing
Is the emptiness of everything.

Aryadeva, Four Hundred Verses, VIII, 16


References

  1. Karen Lang, Aryadeva's Catuhsataka: On the Bodhisattva's Cultivation of Merit and Knowledge