Difference between revisions of "Four continents"

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'''Four continents''' (Tib. ''gling bzhi'') - the four continents which surround [[Mount Meru]] according to the cosmology of the [[Abhidharma]] are:
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[[Image:Four Continents.jpg|frame|An illustration of our [[world]] system]]
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'''Four continents''' (Tib. གླིང་བཞི་, ''ling shyi'',  [[Wyl.]] ''gling bzhi'') the four island-continents (Skt. ''dvīpa''; Tib. གླིང་, Wyl. ''gling'') which surround [[Mount Meru]] according to the cosmology of the [[Abhidharma]]. They are:
  
*Purva Videha (Lüpakpo) in the East, which is semi-circular
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#[[Purvavideha]] in the East, which is semi-circular and white in colour;
*[[Jambudvipa]] (Dzambuling) in the South, which is trapezoidal
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#[[Jambudvipa]] in the South, which is trapezoidal and blue (this is the continent we human beings live in);
*Aparagodaniya (Balangchö) in the West, which is circular
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#[[Aparagodaniya]] (Skt. ''Aparagodānīya;'' Tib. བ་ལང་སྤྱོད་, ''Balangchö''; Wyl. ''ba lang spyod''; Eng. 'Enjoyer of Cattle') in the West, which is circular and ruby red; and
*Uttarakura (Draminyen) in the North, which is square
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#[[Uttarakuru]] (Skt.; Tib. སྒྲ་མི་སྙན་,  ''Draminyen''; Wyl. ''sgra mi snyan''; Eng. 'Unpleasant Sound') in the North, which is square and green.
  
Each of the four continents is flanked by two subcontinents of the same shape (see [[eight subcontinents]]).
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Each of the four continents is flanked by two subcontinents (Skt. ''kṣudradvīpāni''; Tib. གླིང་ཕྲན་, ling tren; Wyl. ''gling phran'') of the same shape (see [[eight subcontinents]]).
  
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Apart from the [[Chamara]] subcontinent of Jambudvipa, which is inhabited by [[rakshasa]] demons, all the other island-continents are inhabited by [[human beings]] of different characteristics, life styles and life-spans. Each continent also has a specific attribute (see [[four attributes of the four continents]]).
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==Further Reading==
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*[[Jamgön Kongtrul]], ''Myriad Worlds'' (Ithaca: Snow Lion, 1995), pages 110-113 & 138-140, ISBN 978-1559391887
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[[Category:Three Realms of Samsara]]
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[[Category:Cosmology]]
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[[Category:Abhidharma]]
 
[[Category:Enumerations]]
 
[[Category:Enumerations]]
[[Category:Places]]
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[[Category:04-Four]]

Latest revision as of 23:39, 13 June 2018

An illustration of our world system

Four continents (Tib. གླིང་བཞི་, ling shyi, Wyl. gling bzhi) — the four island-continents (Skt. dvīpa; Tib. གླིང་, Wyl. gling) which surround Mount Meru according to the cosmology of the Abhidharma. They are:

  1. Purvavideha in the East, which is semi-circular and white in colour;
  2. Jambudvipa in the South, which is trapezoidal and blue (this is the continent we human beings live in);
  3. Aparagodaniya (Skt. Aparagodānīya; Tib. བ་ལང་སྤྱོད་, Balangchö; Wyl. ba lang spyod; Eng. 'Enjoyer of Cattle') in the West, which is circular and ruby red; and
  4. Uttarakuru (Skt.; Tib. སྒྲ་མི་སྙན་, Draminyen; Wyl. sgra mi snyan; Eng. 'Unpleasant Sound') in the North, which is square and green.

Each of the four continents is flanked by two subcontinents (Skt. kṣudradvīpāni; Tib. གླིང་ཕྲན་, ling tren; Wyl. gling phran) of the same shape (see eight subcontinents).

Apart from the Chamara subcontinent of Jambudvipa, which is inhabited by rakshasa demons, all the other island-continents are inhabited by human beings of different characteristics, life styles and life-spans. Each continent also has a specific attribute (see four attributes of the four continents).

Further Reading

  • Jamgön Kongtrul, Myriad Worlds (Ithaca: Snow Lion, 1995), pages 110-113 & 138-140, ISBN 978-1559391887