Four perfect knowledges

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Four perfect knowledges (Skt. pratisaṃvid; Wyl. so so yang dag par rig pa bzhi) are included within the twenty-one sets of immaculate qualities.

  1. perfect knowledge of meaning (Skt. artha; Wyl. don)
  2. perfect knowledge of Dharma (Wyl. chos)
  3. perfect knowledge of language (Skt. nirukti; Wyl. nges tshig)
  4. perfect knowledge of courageous eloquence (Skt. pratibhāna; Wyl. spobs pa)

In Mipham Rinpoche's Khenjuk, these are described as the means of maintaining the vast and profound teachings, i.e., the ten topics of knowledge (the vast) and the four seals (the profound).

Alternative Translations

  • Four analytic insights (Andy Rotman)
  • Four analytical knowledges (Edward Conze)
  • Four perfect understandings