Four primary elements

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The four primary elements (Tib. jungwa chenpo shyi) are

  • earth,
  • water,
  • fire and
  • air.


  • Earth is what provides support and stability;
  • water is the principle of cohesion;
  • fire matures; and
  • wind prevents decay.

In addition, space is all-pervasive openness in which phenomena can take place—if it were not for space, a plant could not grow.