Four valid factors

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Four valid factors (Tib. tséma shyi; Wyl. tshad ma bzhi) of Lamdré:

  • valid scripture (lung tséma),
  • valid commentaries (tenchö tséma),
  • valid teacher (lama tséma), and
  • valid experience (nyam nyong tséma).

They arose in this order, but in a student’s experience it goes the other way. First a student develops some valid experience, then appreciates the importance and value of a teacher. Once one has respect for the teacher one has more respect for the commentaries he or she teaches, and then for the original scriptures taught by the Buddha.