Difference between revisions of "Kangyur"

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[[Image:Buton.JPG|thumb|[[Butön Rinchen Drup]]]]
 
[[Image:Buton.JPG|thumb|[[Butön Rinchen Drup]]]]
'''Kangyur''' (Tib. [[བཀའ་འགྱུར་]], [[Wyl.]] ''bka' 'gyur'') literally the 'translated words' of the [[Buddha]]. The Kangyur is a collection of the Buddha's own teachings in their Tibetan translation. The [[Word of the Buddha|words of the Buddha]] are the [[sutra]]s and the [[tantra]]s. The parent collection of the Kangyur is the [[Tengyur]] that gathers the [[treatise]]s composed by the great Indian masters of the first millennium in Tibetan translation. Though these collections aimed at exhaustiveness, most [[Nyingma]] tantras were left out by their [[Sarma]] compilers. This lead to the creation of the [[Nyingma Gyübum]] that brings together the Nyingma tantras.  
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'''Kangyur''' (Tib. [[བཀའ་འགྱུར་]], [[Wyl.]] ''bka' 'gyur'') literally means the 'translated words' of the [[Buddha]]. The Kangyur is a collection of the Buddha's own teachings in their Tibetan translation. The [[Word of the Buddha|words of the Buddha]] comprise both the [[sutra]]s and the [[tantra]]s.  
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The parent collection of the Kangyur is the [[Tengyur]] that gathers the [[treatise]]s composed by the great Indian masters of the first millennium in Tibetan translation. Though these collections aimed at exhaustiveness, most [[Nyingma]] tantras were left out by their [[Sarma]] compilers. This lead to the creation of the [[Nyingma Gyübum]] that brings together the Nyingma tantras.  
  
 
The compilation of the first version of the Kangyur was finalized by the great scholar [[Butön Rinchen Drup]] (1290-1364). Several versions of the compilation existed in Tibet, among which the most notable are those from [[Dergé Kangyur|Dergé]], [[Lhasa Kangyur|Lhasa]], [[Narthang Kangyur|Narthang]], [[Choné Kangyur|Choné]], Peking, [[Urga Kangyur|Urga]], Phudrak, and [[Tok Palace Kangyur|Tok Palace]]. Before the compilation work started, most of the texts in these collections existed in several translations. The editors chose the one they considered the best. While the 'chosen one' became authoritative, most of the other ones disappeared. The different editions mostly show minor variations in the texts collected.  
 
The compilation of the first version of the Kangyur was finalized by the great scholar [[Butön Rinchen Drup]] (1290-1364). Several versions of the compilation existed in Tibet, among which the most notable are those from [[Dergé Kangyur|Dergé]], [[Lhasa Kangyur|Lhasa]], [[Narthang Kangyur|Narthang]], [[Choné Kangyur|Choné]], Peking, [[Urga Kangyur|Urga]], Phudrak, and [[Tok Palace Kangyur|Tok Palace]]. Before the compilation work started, most of the texts in these collections existed in several translations. The editors chose the one they considered the best. While the 'chosen one' became authoritative, most of the other ones disappeared. The different editions mostly show minor variations in the texts collected.  
  
==Divisions==
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==Divisions of the Dergé Kangyur==
*[[Vinaya]] ([[འདུལ་བ་]], ''<nowiki>'</nowiki>dul ba'')
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*The Discipline (Skt. [[Vinaya]]; Tib. [[འདུལ་བ་]], Wyl. ''<nowiki>'</nowiki>dul ba'') section ([[Toh]] 1-7) contains texts focusing primarily on the monastic rules and their origins, but also a wealth of historical, biographical, and cultural material.
 
:{{84000|http://read.84000.co/section/O1JC114941JC11495.html|Discipline}}
 
:{{84000|http://read.84000.co/section/O1JC114941JC11495.html|Discipline}}
*[[Prajnaparamita|Prajñāpāramitā]] ([[ཤེར་ཕྱིན་]], ''sher phyin'')
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*The Discourses (Skt. [[Sutra|Sūtra]]; Tib. [[མདོ་]], Wyl. ''mdo'') section (Toh 8-359) forms the main body of the Buddha’s discourses, ranging from lengthy and detailed presentations of doctrine to brief summaries of particular points.
:{{84000|http://read.84000.co/section/O1JC114941JC14665.html|Perfection of Wisdom (''Prajñāpāramitā'')}}
 
*[[Avatamsaka|Buddhāvataṃsaka]] ([[ཕལ་ཆེན་]], ''phal chen'')
 
:{{84000|http://read.84000.co/section/O1JC114941JC14666.html|The Sūtra of the Ornament of the Buddhas}}
 
*[[Ratnakuta|Ratnakūṭa]] ([[དཀོན་བརྩེགས་]], ''dkon brtsegs'')
 
:{{84000|http://read.84000.co/section/O1JC114941JC14667.html|Heap of Jewels}}
 
*[[Sutra|Sūtra]] ([[མདོ་]], ''mdo'')
 
 
:{{84000|http://read.84000.co/section/O1JC114941JC14668.html|General Sūtra Section}}
 
:{{84000|http://read.84000.co/section/O1JC114941JC14668.html|General Sūtra Section}}
*[[Tantra]] ([[རྒྱུད་]], ''rgyud'')
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*The [[Tantra]] (Skt.; Tib. [[རྒྱུད་]], Wyl. ''rgyud'') section contains the scriptures of the [[Vajrayana]]
 
:{{84000|http://read.84000.co/section/O1JC114941JC20565.html|Tantra collection}}
 
:{{84000|http://read.84000.co/section/O1JC114941JC20565.html|Tantra collection}}
 
:{{84000|http://read.84000.co/section/O1JC114941JC20566.html|Old Tantras}}
 
:{{84000|http://read.84000.co/section/O1JC114941JC20566.html|Old Tantras}}
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*The Incantations (Skt. ''[[Dhāraṇī]]''; Tib. གཟུངས།, Wyl. ''gzungs'') section (Toh 846-1108) contains short sutra or tantra texts used mainly for ritual purposes, mostly structured around an incantation in Sanskrit, its uses and the story of its origin.
  
 
==Further Reading==
 
==Further Reading==

Revision as of 11:46, 25 February 2020

Kangyur (Tib. བཀའ་འགྱུར་, Wyl. bka' 'gyur) literally means the 'translated words' of the Buddha. The Kangyur is a collection of the Buddha's own teachings in their Tibetan translation. The words of the Buddha comprise both the sutras and the tantras.

The parent collection of the Kangyur is the Tengyur that gathers the treatises composed by the great Indian masters of the first millennium in Tibetan translation. Though these collections aimed at exhaustiveness, most Nyingma tantras were left out by their Sarma compilers. This lead to the creation of the Nyingma Gyübum that brings together the Nyingma tantras.

The compilation of the first version of the Kangyur was finalized by the great scholar Butön Rinchen Drup (1290-1364). Several versions of the compilation existed in Tibet, among which the most notable are those from Dergé, Lhasa, Narthang, Choné, Peking, Urga, Phudrak, and Tok Palace. Before the compilation work started, most of the texts in these collections existed in several translations. The editors chose the one they considered the best. While the 'chosen one' became authoritative, most of the other ones disappeared. The different editions mostly show minor variations in the texts collected.

Divisions of the Dergé Kangyur

  • The Discipline (Skt. Vinaya; Tib. འདུལ་བ་, Wyl. 'dul ba) section (Toh 1-7) contains texts focusing primarily on the monastic rules and their origins, but also a wealth of historical, biographical, and cultural material.
84000.png Discipline
  • The Discourses (Skt. Sūtra; Tib. མདོ་, Wyl. mdo) section (Toh 8-359) forms the main body of the Buddha’s discourses, ranging from lengthy and detailed presentations of doctrine to brief summaries of particular points.
84000.png General Sūtra Section
84000.png Tantra collection
84000.png Old Tantras
  • The Incantations (Skt. Dhāraṇī; Tib. གཟུངས།, Wyl. gzungs) section (Toh 846-1108) contains short sutra or tantra texts used mainly for ritual purposes, mostly structured around an incantation in Sanskrit, its uses and the story of its origin.

Further Reading

  • Paul Harrison, 'A Brief History of the Tibetan bKa' 'gyur' in Cabezón and Jackson, ed., Tibetan Literature: Studies in Genre, Snow Lion, 1996
  • Peter Skilling, Translating the Buddha's Words: Some Notes on the Kanjur Translation Project, Nonthaburi, March 11, 2009
  • Peter Skilling, 'Kanjur Titles and Colophons' in Tibetan Studies, vol. 2. Oslo, 1994, pp.768-780

Internal Links

External Links