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Suffering (Skt. duḥkha; Tib. སྡུག་བསྔལ་, dukngal; Wyl. sdug bsngal) is the first of the four truths of the noble ones.


There are three types of suffering:

  1. suffering of suffering (Skt. duḥkha duḥkhatā; Tib. སྡུག་བསྔལ་གྱི་སྡུག་བསྔལ་, Wyl. sdug bsngal gyi sdug bsngal)
  2. suffering of change (Skt. vipariṇāma duḥkhatā; Tib. གྱུར་བའི་སྡུག་བསྔལ་, Wyl. 'gyur ba'i sdug bsngal)
  3. all-pervasive suffering of conditioning (Skt. saṃskāra duḥkhatā; Tib. ཁྱབ་པ་འདུ་བྱེད་ཀྱི་སྡུག་བསྔལ་, Wyl. khyab pa 'du byed kyi sdug bsngal)

Alternative Translations

  • frustration
  • stress (Jon Kabat-Zin)