Four kinds of treatise

From Rigpa Wiki
Jump to navigation Jump to search

In general, there are four kinds of treatise (Tib. བསྟན་བཅོས་བཞི་, tenchö shyi, Wyl. bstan bcos bzhi) :

  1. a treatise that imposes order on what appears disorganized (Tib. འཁྲུགས་པ་བསྡེབ་པའི་བསྟན་བཅོས་, Wyl. 'khrugs pa bsdeb pa'i bstan bcos);
  2. a treatise that elucidates difficult points (Tib. གབ་པ་འབྱིན་པའི་བསྟན་བཅོས་, Wyl. gab pa 'byin pa'i bstan bcos);
  3. a treatise that brings together scattered elements (Tib. འཐོར་བ་སྡུད་པའི་བསྟན་བཅོས་, Wyl. 'thor ba sdud pa'i bstan bcos); and
  4. a treatise that is composed with a view to practise (Tib. སྒྲུབ་པ་ཉམས་ལེན་གྱི་བསྟན་བཅོས་, Wyl. sgrub pa nyams len gyi bstan bcos )[1]


  1. Khenpo Kunpal, The Nectar of Manjushri’s Speech, a Detailed Commentary on Shantideva’s Way of the Bodhisattva, p.35/36, Translated by the Padmakara Translation Group, published by Shambhala, ISBN 978-1-59030-439-6.

Further Reading

For a more elaborate classification see:

  • Appendix 2 in Wisdom Nectar: Dudjom Rinpoche’s Heart Advice, pp. 354-364, The Tsadra Foundation Series, ISBN 10 1-55939-224-X, and:
  • Dudjom Rinpoche, The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism, Wisdom Publications, pp.88-109, ISBN 0-86171-199-9.

Internal Links