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'''Humkara''' (Skt. Hūṃkāra; Tib. ཧཱུྃ་ཀ་ར་, [[ཧཱུྃ་མཛད་]], [[Wyl.]] ''hUM ka ra'' or ''hUM mdzad'') — one of the [[eight vidyadharas]] of India; he received the Shri Heruka (Tib. [[Yangdak Heruka]]) tantra from the [[Kagyé]] cycle.
+
'''Humkara''' (Skt. ''Hūṃkāra''; Tib. ཧཱུྃ་ཀ་ར་, [[ཧཱུྃ་མཛད་]], [[Wyl.]] ''hUM ka ra'' or ''hUM mdzad'') — one of the [[eight vidyadharas]] of India; he received the Shri Heruka (Tib. [[Yangdak Heruka]]) [[tantra]] from the [[Kagyé]] cycle.
  
According to the [[Pema Kathang]], Humkara’s home-country is the mythical country of Ngatubchen (Tib. ''Rnga thub chen''). There, Humkara was initiated into the Kagye—the Nyingma’s eight main [[yidam]] which incl. Shri Heruka—from [[Padmasambhava]] and his consort [[Kalasiddhi]].<ref name="ftn1">Yeshe, Tsogyal, The Life and Liberation of Padmasambhava, Vol. I & II, (Emeryville: Dharma Publishing, 1978): 300-302.</ref> [[Taranatha]] suggests that Humkara may have been an epithet of the siddha Vaidyapada (Skt. ‘’Vaidyapāda’’, Tib. ‘’Sman zhabs’’) aka Viryapada (Skt. ''Vīryapāda'', Tib. ''Bhi rgya pa'', ''Bir ya pa'', ''Bha wa pa''). Accordingly, Vaidyapada received the epithet Humkara after he had practiced and accomplished the wrathful deity named Humkara.<ref name="ftn2">Most of the hagiographies state that Humkara is the master obtained after having displayed great advancement in his meditation practice.</ref> The short biography of Vaidyapada that Taranatha relates, matches the biography that [[Dudjom Rinpoche]] gives of Humkara.<ref name="ftn3">For the account by Tāranātha, see: Taranatha, The Seven Instruction Lineages (Bka' babs bdun ldan), translated by David Templeman, (Library of Tibetan Works and Archives: Dharamsala 1983): 62-63. And, for Dudjom Rinpoche’s account, see: Dudjom Rinpoche, The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism: Its Fundamentals and History, (Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications, 1991): 475-457.</ref> From this, it appears as though Dudjom Rinpoche also believed Humkara to be Vaidyapada. Dudjom Rinpoche however never mentions the name Vaidyapada or Viryapada and only refers to the siddha as Humkara. Following Dudjom Rinpoche’s and Taranatha’s hagiographies, Humkara was born into a Brahmin family in ancient Nepal (i.e. the Kathmandu valley)<ref name="ftn4">In ancient time Nepal merely consisted of the Kathmandu valley and its surrounding areas. Its inhabitants were called the Newar and their language is likewise called Newar. Because Newar is a Tibet-Burman language, and not an Indo-Aryan one, it does not follow the pattern of other subcontinental languages which end in “-i”. Same for the people. Newar, not Newari. (Although Nepalis and many foreigners use the latter, it is a solecism.)</ref> and thus first became learned in the bhramanical tradition. He was ordained at [[Nalanda]] and studied with the masters Buddhajnanapada (Skt. ''Buddhajñānapāda'') and Dipamkarabhadra (Skt. ''Dīpaṃkarabhadra'') or Rahulabhadra (Skt. ''Rāhulabhadra'').<ref name="ftn5">Dudjom Rinpoche states that Humkara studied with Buddhajnanapada and Rahulabhadra. Taranatha states that he studied with Buddhajnanapada and Dipamkarabhadra.</ref> By practicing it together with a ‘untouchable’ (Skt. caṇḍāla) consort Humkara gained the accomplishment of the mahamudra vidyadhara. It is ambiguous whether Humkara either attained this accomplishment through the practice of Shri Heruka or revealed the practice of Shri Heruka as a result of his accomplishment. Humkara is said to have been the teacher of Avadhuti (Skt. ''Avadhuti'') of Kamaru (Skt. ''Kāmarū''),Vajrasana (Skt. ''Vajrāsana''), Kusali and Buddhashrishanti (Skt. ''Buddhaśrīśānti'') of [[Uddiyana]]. These are said to have taught in turn Sauripada (Skt. ''Sauripāda'') and Abhayakaragupta (Skt. ''Abhayākaragupta'').<ref name="ftn6">Taranatha, see: Taranatha, The Seven Instruction Lineages (Bka' babs bdun ldan), translated by David Templeman, (Library of Tibetan Works and Archives: Dharamsala 1983): 63.</ref> 
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==Biography==
 +
According to the [[Pema Kathang]], Humkara’s home-country is the mythical country of Ngatubchen (Wyl. ''rnga thub chen''). There, Humkara was initiated into the Kagye—the [[Nyingma]]’s eight main [[yidam]] which includes Shri Heruka—from [[Padmasambhava]] and his consort [[Kalasiddhi]].<ref name="ftn1">Yeshe, Tsogyal, ''The Life and Liberation of Padmasambhava, Vol. I & II'', (Emeryville: Dharma Publishing, 1978): 300-302.</ref> [[Taranatha]] suggests that Humkara may have been an epithet of the siddha Vaidyapada (Skt. ''Vaidyapāda''; Wyl. ''sman zhabs'') aka Viryapada (Skt. ''Vīryapāda''; Wyl. ''bhi rgya pa'', ''bir ya pa'', ''bha wa pa''). Accordingly, Vaidyapada received the epithet Humkara after he had practised and accomplished the wrathful deity named Humkara.<ref name="ftn2">Most of the hagiographies state that Humkara is the master obtained after having displayed great advancement in his meditation practice.</ref> The short biography of Vaidyapada that Taranatha relates, matches the biography that [[Dudjom Rinpoche]] gives of Humkara.<ref name="ftn3">For the account by Tāranātha, see: Taranatha, ''The Seven Instruction Lineages'' (''bka' babs bdun ldan''), translated by David Templeman, (Library of Tibetan Works and Archives: Dharamsala 1983): 62-63. And, for Dudjom Rinpoche’s account, see: Dudjom Rinpoche, ''The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism: Its Fundamentals and History'' (Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications, 1991): 475-457.</ref> From this, it appears as though Dudjom Rinpoche also believed Humkara to be Vaidyapada. Dudjom Rinpoche however never mentions the name Vaidyapada or Viryapada and only refers to the siddha as Humkara.  
  
In the [[Nyingma]] tradition Humkara is also listed as one of the teachers of [[Dhanasamskrita]].<ref name="ftn7">Erberto Lo Bue, “The Role of Newar Scholars in Transmitting the Indian Buddhist Heritage to Tibet,” In Les habitants du toit du monde. Hommage ά Alexander W. Macdonald, (Nanterre: Société d’ethnologie, 1997): 632.</ref> If Humkara taught his students the practice of Shri Heruka, then the students mentioned above constitute the Indian tradition of Shri Heruka.
+
Following Dudjom Rinpoche’s and Taranatha’s hagiographies, Humkara was born into a Brahmin family in ancient Nepal (i.e. the Kathmandu valley)<ref name="ftn4">In ancient time Nepal merely consisted of the Kathmandu valley and its surrounding areas. Its inhabitants were called the Newar and their language is likewise called Newar. Because Newar is a Tibet-Burman language, and not an Indo-Aryan one, it does not follow the pattern of other subcontinental languages which end in “-i”. Same for the people. Newar, not Newari. (Although Nepalis and many foreigners use the latter, it is a solecism.)</ref> and thus first became learned in the bhramanical tradition. He was ordained at [[Nalanda]] and studied with the masters Buddhajnanapada (Skt. ''Buddhajñānapāda'') and Dipamkarabhadra (Skt. ''Dīpaṃkarabhadra'') or Rahulabhadra (Skt. ''Rāhulabhadra'').<ref name="ftn5">Dudjom Rinpoche states that Humkara studied with Buddhajnanapada and Rahulabhadra. Taranatha states that he studied with Buddhajnanapada and Dipamkarabhadra.</ref> By practising it together with an ‘untouchable’ (Skt. ''caṇḍāla'') consort, Humkara gained the accomplishment of the [[mahamudra vidyadhara]]. It is ambiguous whether Humkara either attained this accomplishment through the practice of Shri Heruka or revealed the practice of Shri Heruka as a result of his accomplishment. Humkara is said to have been the teacher of Avadhuti (Skt.) of Kamaru (Skt. ''Kāmarū''), Vajrasana (Skt. ''Vajrāsana''), Kusali and Buddhashrishanti (Skt. ''Buddhaśrīśānti'') of [[Uddiyana]]. These are said to have taught in turn Sauripada (Skt. ''Sauripāda'') and Abhayakaragupta (Skt. ''Abhayākaragupta'').<ref name="ftn6">Taranatha, see: Taranatha, The Seven Instruction Lineages (Bka' babs bdun ldan), translated by David Templeman, (Library of Tibetan Works and Archives: Dharamsala 1983): 63.</ref>
  
According to the Nyingma [[terma]] tradition Humkara is counted as one of a [[mandala]] of eight vidyadharas<ref name="ftn8">Here vidyadhara refers to a practitioner who has gained magical abilities through his or her accomplishment in tantric practices.</ref> who revealed the ''Kagyé'' in the [[Shitavana]] charnel ground at the [[Shankarakuta stupa]].<ref name="ftn9">Dudjom Rinpoche, ''The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism: Its Fundamentals and History'', (Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications, 1991): 482-483.</ref>  
+
In the Nyingma tradition Humkara is also listed as one of the teachers of [[Dhanasamskrita]].<ref name="ftn7">Erberto Lo Bue, “The Role of Newar Scholars in Transmitting the Indian Buddhist Heritage to Tibet,” In ''Les habitants du toit du monde''. Hommage ά Alexander W. Macdonald, (Nanterre: Société d’ethnologie, 1997): 632.</ref> If Humkara taught his students the practice of Shri Heruka, then the students mentioned above constitute the Indian tradition of Shri Heruka.
  
As a result of their practice the [[vidyadhara]]s had a visionary encounter with the [[dakini]] [[Karmendrani]] and were each entrusted one yidam by her. Humkara received the teachings on ''Shri Heruka.'' Thus, Humkara is said to have held both an oral and a revealed lineage of Shri Heruka, which according to Dudjom Rinpoche, he transmitted to his main disciples Padmasambhava and [[Namkhé Nyingpo]].  
+
According to the Nyingma [[terma]] tradition, Humkara is counted as one of a [[mandala]] of eight vidyadharas<ref name="ftn8">Here vidyadhara refers to a practitioner who has gained magical abilities through his or her accomplishment in tantric practices.</ref> who revealed the ''Kagyé'' in the [[Shitavana]] charnel ground at the [[Shankarakuta stupa]].<ref name="ftn9">Dudjom Rinpoche, ''The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism: Its Fundamentals and History'', (Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications, 1991): 482-483.</ref>
  
Later, Humkara is said to have travelled to Tibet where he served as the chaplain of King Senalek (Tib. ''Sad na legs'').<ref name="ftn10">Taranatha,'' The Seven Instruction Lineages ''(Tib. ''Bka' babs bdun ldan''), translated by David Templeman, (Library of Tibetan Works and Archives: Dharamsala 1983): 63.</ref> Hence, Tibetan lineage of ''Shri Heruka'' could be traced back to Humkara’s teachings giving during his stay in Tibet and especially to his disciples Padmasambhava and Namkhé Nyingpo.
+
As a result of their practice the [[vidyadhara]]s had a visionary encounter with the [[dakini]] [[Karmendrani]] and were each entrusted one [[yidam]] by her. Humkara received the teachings on ''Shri Heruka.'' Thus, Humkara is said to have held both an oral and a revealed lineage of Shri Heruka, which according to Dudjom Rinpoche, he transmitted to his main disciples Padmasambhava and [[Namkhé Nyingpo]].
 +
 
 +
Later, Humkara is said to have travelled to Tibet where he served as the chaplain of King Senalek (Wyl. ''sad na legs'').<ref name="ftn10">Taranatha,'' The Seven Instruction Lineages ''(Tib. ''Bka' babs bdun ldan''), translated by David Templeman, (Library of Tibetan Works and Archives: Dharamsala 1983): 63.</ref> Hence, Tibetan lineage of ''Shri Heruka'' could be traced back to Humkara’s teachings giving during his stay in Tibet and especially to his disciples Padmasambhava and Namkhé Nyingpo.
  
 
==Writings==
 
==Writings==
Regarding Humkara’s writings, the [[Tengyur]] preserves in total of five texts attributed to him. All of them are classified as ritual manuals to the [[Sarvabuddhasamayoga]] (D 1674-78) and three of them are dedicated to a deity referred to as Shri Heruka (Tib. ''Dpal he ru ka'', D 1674, 1675 & 1678).  
+
Regarding Humkara’s writings, the [[Tengyur]] preserves in total of five texts attributed to him. All of them are classified as ritual manuals to the [[Sarvabuddhasamayoga]] (D 1674-78) and three of them are dedicated to a deity referred to as Shri Heruka (Wyl. ''dpal he ru ka'', D 1674, 1675 & 1678).  
  
Regarding the Tengyur texts; D 1674 & 1677 were translated by Vidyakarasimha (Skt. ''Vidyākarasiṃha'')<ref name="ftn11">Vidyākarasiṃha worked on more than 20 Kangyur and Tengur translations with various Tibetan translators. Among them are Jñānasena (Skt. ''Tib. ''Ye shes sde'') and Manjusrivaram (Skt. ''Mañjusrīvaram''), Kawa Paltsek (Tib. Ska ba dpal brtsegs), and Khön Lui Wangpo (Tib. Khon klu’i dbang po srung ba).</ref> and [[Lha Rinpoche]]. D 1675 & 1676 were translated by Vajrahasa (Skt. ''Vajrahāsa'') and [[Ma Rinchen Chok]]. The colophon of D 1676 states that the text was translated in [[Samye Chimphu]] caves on the request of the Bodhisattva King.<ref name="ftn13">The colophon of D 1676 states: ''snang bar byed pa zhes bya ba slob dpon mkhas shing dngos grub brnyes pa hUM mdzad grags pas mdzad pa rdzogs so/ mnga' bdag btsan po byang chub sems dpa'i bkas dpal bsam yas kyi 'chim phu ru dkyil 'khor chen po'i slob dpon paN+Di ta dpal rdo rje'' ''bzhad pa dang/ sgra bsgyur gyi lo tsA ba chen po rma rin chen mchog gis dbang sgrub dang bcas par bsgyur cing bshad nas gtan la phab ba'o/''</ref> The fifth ritual manual, D 1678 according to the colophon, was translated on the orders of King [[Trisong Deutsen]], by Namkhé Nyingpo together with Humkara at Nalanda.<ref name="ftn14">The colophon of D 1678 states: ''bod kyi lha btsan po khri srong lde btsan gyi bka' lung gis dpal na len+d+ra'i gtsug lag kyang du/rgya gar gyi mkhan po hUM ka ra de nyid dang/ zhu chen gyi lo tsA ba ban+d+he gnubs nam mkha'i snying pos bsgyur cing zhus te gtan la pa'o/''</ref>
+
Regarding the Tengyur texts; D 1674 & 1677 were translated by Vidyakarasimha (Skt. ''Vidyākarasiṃha'')<ref name="ftn11">Vidyākarasiṃha worked on more than 20 Kangyur and Tengur translations with various Tibetan translators. Among them are Jñānasena (Skt. ''Tib. ''Ye shes sde'') and Manjusrivaram (Skt. ''Mañjusrīvaram''), Kawa Paltsek (Wyl. Ska ba dpal brtsegs), and Khön Lui Wangpo (Tib. Khon klu’i dbang po srung ba).</ref> and [[Lha Rinpoche]]. D 1675 & 1676 were translated by Vajrahasa (Skt. ''Vajrahāsa'') and [[Ma Rinchen Chok]]. The colophon of D 1676 states that the text was translated in [[Samye Chimphu]] caves on the request of the Bodhisattva King.<ref name="ftn13">The colophon of D 1676 states: ''snang bar byed pa zhes bya ba slob dpon mkhas shing dngos grub brnyes pa hUM mdzad grags pas mdzad pa rdzogs so/ mnga' bdag btsan po byang chub sems dpa'i bkas dpal bsam yas kyi 'chim phu ru dkyil 'khor chen po'i slob dpon paN+Di ta dpal rdo rje'' ''bzhad pa dang/ sgra bsgyur gyi lo tsA ba chen po rma rin chen mchog gis dbang sgrub dang bcas par bsgyur cing bshad nas gtan la phab ba'o/''</ref> The fifth ritual manual, D 1678 according to the colophon, was translated on the orders of King [[Trisong Deutsen]], by Namkhé Nyingpo together with Humkara at Nalanda.<ref name="ftn14">The colophon of D 1678 states: ''bod kyi lha btsan po khri srong lde btsan gyi bka' lung gis dpal na len+d+ra'i gtsug lag kyang du/rgya gar gyi mkhan po hUM ka ra de nyid dang/ zhu chen gyi lo tsA ba ban+d+he gnubs nam mkha'i snying pos bsgyur cing zhus te gtan la pa'o/''</ref>
  
 
The [[Nyingma Gyübum]] attributes the tantra dedicated to Shri Heruka, entitled ''Pal Heruké Tukyi Gyü Galpo'' (Tib. ''Pal he ru ka’I thugs kyi rgyud gal po'') to Humkara. According to the colophon, the tantra was revealed by Humkara from Uddiyana<ref name="ftn15">This could likely have been a vision of Uddiyana.</ref> and in turn translated by Padmasambhava and Namkhé Nyingpo.<ref name="ftn16">The colophon of the ''Pal he ru ka’i thugs kyi rgyud gal po'' states: ''u rgyan gyi mkhan po chen po pad+ma sam bha wa dang/ lo tsA ba dge slong nam mkha’i snying pos bsgyur cing zhus te gtan la phab pa’o/ nub phyogs u rgyan gyi gnas nas slob dpon hUM ka ras bton pa’o/''</ref>
 
The [[Nyingma Gyübum]] attributes the tantra dedicated to Shri Heruka, entitled ''Pal Heruké Tukyi Gyü Galpo'' (Tib. ''Pal he ru ka’I thugs kyi rgyud gal po'') to Humkara. According to the colophon, the tantra was revealed by Humkara from Uddiyana<ref name="ftn15">This could likely have been a vision of Uddiyana.</ref> and in turn translated by Padmasambhava and Namkhé Nyingpo.<ref name="ftn16">The colophon of the ''Pal he ru ka’i thugs kyi rgyud gal po'' states: ''u rgyan gyi mkhan po chen po pad+ma sam bha wa dang/ lo tsA ba dge slong nam mkha’i snying pos bsgyur cing zhus te gtan la phab pa’o/ nub phyogs u rgyan gyi gnas nas slob dpon hUM ka ras bton pa’o/''</ref>

Latest revision as of 13:10, 4 January 2018

Humkara.jpg

Humkara (Skt. Hūṃkāra; Tib. ཧཱུྃ་ཀ་ར་, ཧཱུྃ་མཛད་, Wyl. hUM ka ra or hUM mdzad) — one of the eight vidyadharas of India; he received the Shri Heruka (Tib. Yangdak Heruka) tantra from the Kagyé cycle.

Biography

According to the Pema Kathang, Humkara’s home-country is the mythical country of Ngatubchen (Wyl. rnga thub chen). There, Humkara was initiated into the Kagye—the Nyingma’s eight main yidam which includes Shri Heruka—from Padmasambhava and his consort Kalasiddhi.[1] Taranatha suggests that Humkara may have been an epithet of the siddha Vaidyapada (Skt. Vaidyapāda; Wyl. sman zhabs) aka Viryapada (Skt. Vīryapāda; Wyl. bhi rgya pa, bir ya pa, bha wa pa). Accordingly, Vaidyapada received the epithet Humkara after he had practised and accomplished the wrathful deity named Humkara.[2] The short biography of Vaidyapada that Taranatha relates, matches the biography that Dudjom Rinpoche gives of Humkara.[3] From this, it appears as though Dudjom Rinpoche also believed Humkara to be Vaidyapada. Dudjom Rinpoche however never mentions the name Vaidyapada or Viryapada and only refers to the siddha as Humkara.

Following Dudjom Rinpoche’s and Taranatha’s hagiographies, Humkara was born into a Brahmin family in ancient Nepal (i.e. the Kathmandu valley)[4] and thus first became learned in the bhramanical tradition. He was ordained at Nalanda and studied with the masters Buddhajnanapada (Skt. Buddhajñānapāda) and Dipamkarabhadra (Skt. Dīpaṃkarabhadra) or Rahulabhadra (Skt. Rāhulabhadra).[5] By practising it together with an ‘untouchable’ (Skt. caṇḍāla) consort, Humkara gained the accomplishment of the mahamudra vidyadhara. It is ambiguous whether Humkara either attained this accomplishment through the practice of Shri Heruka or revealed the practice of Shri Heruka as a result of his accomplishment. Humkara is said to have been the teacher of Avadhuti (Skt.) of Kamaru (Skt. Kāmarū), Vajrasana (Skt. Vajrāsana), Kusali and Buddhashrishanti (Skt. Buddhaśrīśānti) of Uddiyana. These are said to have taught in turn Sauripada (Skt. Sauripāda) and Abhayakaragupta (Skt. Abhayākaragupta).[6]

In the Nyingma tradition Humkara is also listed as one of the teachers of Dhanasamskrita.[7] If Humkara taught his students the practice of Shri Heruka, then the students mentioned above constitute the Indian tradition of Shri Heruka.

According to the Nyingma terma tradition, Humkara is counted as one of a mandala of eight vidyadharas[8] who revealed the Kagyé in the Shitavana charnel ground at the Shankarakuta stupa.[9]

As a result of their practice the vidyadharas had a visionary encounter with the dakini Karmendrani and were each entrusted one yidam by her. Humkara received the teachings on Shri Heruka. Thus, Humkara is said to have held both an oral and a revealed lineage of Shri Heruka, which according to Dudjom Rinpoche, he transmitted to his main disciples Padmasambhava and Namkhé Nyingpo.

Later, Humkara is said to have travelled to Tibet where he served as the chaplain of King Senalek (Wyl. sad na legs).[10] Hence, Tibetan lineage of Shri Heruka could be traced back to Humkara’s teachings giving during his stay in Tibet and especially to his disciples Padmasambhava and Namkhé Nyingpo.

Writings

Regarding Humkara’s writings, the Tengyur preserves in total of five texts attributed to him. All of them are classified as ritual manuals to the Sarvabuddhasamayoga (D 1674-78) and three of them are dedicated to a deity referred to as Shri Heruka (Wyl. dpal he ru ka, D 1674, 1675 & 1678).

Regarding the Tengyur texts; D 1674 & 1677 were translated by Vidyakarasimha (Skt. Vidyākarasiṃha)[11] and Lha Rinpoche. D 1675 & 1676 were translated by Vajrahasa (Skt. Vajrahāsa) and Ma Rinchen Chok. The colophon of D 1676 states that the text was translated in Samye Chimphu caves on the request of the Bodhisattva King.[12] The fifth ritual manual, D 1678 according to the colophon, was translated on the orders of King Trisong Deutsen, by Namkhé Nyingpo together with Humkara at Nalanda.[13]

The Nyingma Gyübum attributes the tantra dedicated to Shri Heruka, entitled Pal Heruké Tukyi Gyü Galpo (Tib. Pal he ru ka’I thugs kyi rgyud gal po) to Humkara. According to the colophon, the tantra was revealed by Humkara from Uddiyana[14] and in turn translated by Padmasambhava and Namkhé Nyingpo.[15]

Additionally, Dudjom Rinpoche states that Humkara authored the Shri Rulu Golden Rosary (Tib. Yang dag ru lu gser phreng).[16] However except for further references to this text, which Humkara is said to have transmitted to Namkhé Nyingpo, the actual text appears to have disappeared.

Furthermore, Erberto Lo Bue mentions two further works attributed to Humkara and translated during the first diffusion of Buddhism to Tibet, namely Gyadün Drel (Tib. Rgya mdun ’grel) and Dodrel Naljorpé Drömé (Tib. Mdo ’grel rnal ’byor pa’i sgron me).[17] However, the actual texts appears to have disappeared.

If we also consider Taranatha’s identification of Humkara with Vaidyapada then there is a further commentary on Guhyasamaja preserved in the Tengyur that could be attributed to Humkara, namely the Samyakvidyakara (D 1850, Skt. Samyakvidyākara, Tib. Yang dag rig byed).[18] According to the colophon this work was translated by the pandita Kamalaguhya and the Tibetan translator Yeshé Gyaltsen (Tib. Ye shes rgyal mtshan).

Notes

  1. Yeshe, Tsogyal, The Life and Liberation of Padmasambhava, Vol. I & II, (Emeryville: Dharma Publishing, 1978): 300-302.
  2. Most of the hagiographies state that Humkara is the master obtained after having displayed great advancement in his meditation practice.
  3. For the account by Tāranātha, see: Taranatha, The Seven Instruction Lineages (bka' babs bdun ldan), translated by David Templeman, (Library of Tibetan Works and Archives: Dharamsala 1983): 62-63. And, for Dudjom Rinpoche’s account, see: Dudjom Rinpoche, The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism: Its Fundamentals and History (Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications, 1991): 475-457.
  4. In ancient time Nepal merely consisted of the Kathmandu valley and its surrounding areas. Its inhabitants were called the Newar and their language is likewise called Newar. Because Newar is a Tibet-Burman language, and not an Indo-Aryan one, it does not follow the pattern of other subcontinental languages which end in “-i”. Same for the people. Newar, not Newari. (Although Nepalis and many foreigners use the latter, it is a solecism.)
  5. Dudjom Rinpoche states that Humkara studied with Buddhajnanapada and Rahulabhadra. Taranatha states that he studied with Buddhajnanapada and Dipamkarabhadra.
  6. Taranatha, see: Taranatha, The Seven Instruction Lineages (Bka' babs bdun ldan), translated by David Templeman, (Library of Tibetan Works and Archives: Dharamsala 1983): 63.
  7. Erberto Lo Bue, “The Role of Newar Scholars in Transmitting the Indian Buddhist Heritage to Tibet,” In Les habitants du toit du monde. Hommage ά Alexander W. Macdonald, (Nanterre: Société d’ethnologie, 1997): 632.
  8. Here vidyadhara refers to a practitioner who has gained magical abilities through his or her accomplishment in tantric practices.
  9. Dudjom Rinpoche, The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism: Its Fundamentals and History, (Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications, 1991): 482-483.
  10. Taranatha, The Seven Instruction Lineages (Tib. Bka' babs bdun ldan), translated by David Templeman, (Library of Tibetan Works and Archives: Dharamsala 1983): 63.
  11. Vidyākarasiṃha worked on more than 20 Kangyur and Tengur translations with various Tibetan translators. Among them are Jñānasena (Skt. Tib. Ye shes sde) and Manjusrivaram (Skt. Mañjusrīvaram), Kawa Paltsek (Wyl. Ska ba dpal brtsegs), and Khön Lui Wangpo (Tib. Khon klu’i dbang po srung ba).
  12. The colophon of D 1676 states: snang bar byed pa zhes bya ba slob dpon mkhas shing dngos grub brnyes pa hUM mdzad grags pas mdzad pa rdzogs so/ mnga' bdag btsan po byang chub sems dpa'i bkas dpal bsam yas kyi 'chim phu ru dkyil 'khor chen po'i slob dpon paN+Di ta dpal rdo rje bzhad pa dang/ sgra bsgyur gyi lo tsA ba chen po rma rin chen mchog gis dbang sgrub dang bcas par bsgyur cing bshad nas gtan la phab ba'o/
  13. The colophon of D 1678 states: bod kyi lha btsan po khri srong lde btsan gyi bka' lung gis dpal na len+d+ra'i gtsug lag kyang du/rgya gar gyi mkhan po hUM ka ra de nyid dang/ zhu chen gyi lo tsA ba ban+d+he gnubs nam mkha'i snying pos bsgyur cing zhus te gtan la pa'o/
  14. This could likely have been a vision of Uddiyana.
  15. The colophon of the Pal he ru ka’i thugs kyi rgyud gal po states: u rgyan gyi mkhan po chen po pad+ma sam bha wa dang/ lo tsA ba dge slong nam mkha’i snying pos bsgyur cing zhus te gtan la phab pa’o/ nub phyogs u rgyan gyi gnas nas slob dpon hUM ka ras bton pa’o/
  16. Dudjom Rinpoche, The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism: Its Fundamentals and History, (Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications, 1991): 467-468.
  17. Erberto Lo Bue, “The Role of Newar Scholars in Transmitting the Indian Buddhist Heritage to Tibet,” In Les habitants du toit du monde. Hommage ά Alexander W. Macdonald, (Nanterre: Société d’ethnologie, 1997): 632.
  18. The colophon of D 1850 states: yang dag rig byed ces bya ba rgyud phyi ma'i rnam par bshad pa slob dpon bai dya pā das mdzad pa rdzogs so/ rgya gar gyi mkhan po ka ma la gu hya dang/ bod kyi lo tsā ba mnga' bdag lha ye shes rgyal mtshan gyis bsgyur cing zhus pa'o/

Further Reading

  • Almogi, Orna. “How Authentic Are Titles and Colophons of Tantric Works in the Tibetan Canon? The Case of Three Works and Their Authors and Translators.” In Contributions to Tibetan Buddhist Literature. PIATS 2006: Tibetan Studies: Proceedings of the Eleventh Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, Königswinter 2006. Beiträge Zur Zentralasienforschung 14, Ed. Peter Schwieger, Band 14, edited by Orna Almogi, 87–124. Halle: IITBS, 2008.
  • Davidson, Ronald M. “Gsar ma Apocrypha: the Creation of Orthodoxy, Gray Texts, and the New Revelation.” In Eimer Helmut, Germano David (eds.). The Many Canons of Tibetan Buddhism. PIATS 2000: Tibetan Studies: Proceedings of the Ninth Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, Leiden 2000: 203-224.
  • Dudjom Rinpoche. The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism: Its Fundamentals and History. Translated and edited by Gyurme Dorje and Matthew Kapstein. Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications, 1991.
  • Gyalwa Changchub and Namkhai Nyingpo. Lady of the Lotus-Born: The Life and Enlightenment of Yeshe Tsogyal. Translated by the Padmakara Translation Group. Boston: Shambala, 2002.
  • Germano, David. “The Seven Descents and the Early History of Rnying ma Transmissions.” The Many Canons of Tibetan Buddhism. PIATS 2000: Tibetan Studies: Proceedings of the Ninth Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, Leiden 2000: 225-263.
  • Herrmann-Pfandt, Adelheid. “The Lhan kar ma as a Source for the History of Tantric Buddhism.” In Eimer Helmut, Germano David (eds.). The Many Canons of Tibetan Buddhism. PIATS 2000: Tibetan Studies: Proceedings of the Ninth Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, Leiden 2000: 129-151.
  • Lo Bue, Erberto. “The Role of Newar Scholars in Transmitting the Indian Buddhist Heritage to Tibet.” In Les habitants du toit du monde. Hommage ά Alexander W. Macdonald, ed. Karmay, et Sagant. Nanterre: Société d’ ethnologie, 1997, 629-58.
  • Roerich, George N. The Blue Annals. Calcutta: Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1949.
  • Szántó, Péter-Dániel & Arlo Griffiths. "Sarvabuddhasamāyogaḍākinījālaśaṃvara." In Brill Encyclopedia of Buddhism, Vol. I Literature and Languages, edited by Silk Jonathan A. Leiden: Brill 2015, 367-72.
  • Taranatha, The Seven Instruction Lineages (Tib. Bka' babs bdun ldan), translated by David Templeman, (Library of Tibetan Works and Archives: Dharamsala 1983. =
  • Tulku Thondup. Masters of Meditation and Miracles: Lives of the Great Buddhist Masters of India and Tibet. Boston: Shambhala, 2014.
  • Yeshe Tsogyal. The Life and Liberation of Padmasambhava, Vol. I & II. Padma bKa'i Thang. rediscovered by Terchen Urgyan Lingpa, translated into French by GC Toussaint, and into English by K. Douglas and G. Bays. Emeryville: Dharma Publishing, 1978.
  • Yeshe Tsogyal. The Lotus-born: the life story of Padmasambhava. Transl. Erik Padma Kunsang, ed. Marcia Binder Schmidt. Boston: Shambhala, 1999.