Shramana (Skt. śramaṇa; Tib. དགེ་སྦྱོང་, dge sbyong) - a wandering ascetic or mendicant. The Shramana culture was already in existence at the time of Buddha Shakyamuni. There were both Jain and Buddhist shramanas. It also became an epithet of the Buddha, who was referred to as 'the Great Shramana' (Skt. Mahāśramaṇa).
The Sanskrit term 'śramaṇa' literally means to make effort or exert oneself.