Difference between revisions of "Four modes"

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'''Four modes''' (Skt. ''caturvidha''; [[Wyl.]] ''tshul bzhi'') are:
 
'''Four modes''' (Skt. ''caturvidha''; [[Wyl.]] ''tshul bzhi'') are:
  
#literal
+
#literal (or phonemic) (''tshig gi tshul'')
#general
+
#general (''spyi'i tshul'')
#hidden
+
#hidden (''sbas pa'i tshul'')
#ultimate
+
#ultimate (''mthar thug gi tshul'')
  
 
==Further Reading==
 
==Further Reading==
 +
*Robert Thurman. 'Vajra Hermeneutics' in Donald S. Lopez (ed.), ''Buddhist Hermeneutics''. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1993
 
*Appendix 1. The Six Limits & Four Modes pp.161-166 in ''The Light of Wisdom Volume 1''. Root text by [[Padmasambhava]] and commentary by [[Jamgön Kongtrül]] the Great. Published by Shambhala Publications ISBN 0-87773-566-2
 
*Appendix 1. The Six Limits & Four Modes pp.161-166 in ''The Light of Wisdom Volume 1''. Root text by [[Padmasambhava]] and commentary by [[Jamgön Kongtrül]] the Great. Published by Shambhala Publications ISBN 0-87773-566-2
  
 
==Internal Links==
 
==Internal Links==
[[Lamrim Yeshe Nyingpo]]
+
*[[Lamrim Yeshe Nyingpo]]
 
+
*[[Six limits]]
[[Six limits]]
 
  
 
[[Category:Hermeneutics]]
 
[[Category:Hermeneutics]]
 
[[Category:Enumerations]]
 
[[Category:Enumerations]]
 
[[Category:04-Four]]
 
[[Category:04-Four]]

Revision as of 07:45, 17 July 2011

Four modes (Skt. caturvidha; Wyl. tshul bzhi) are:

  1. literal (or phonemic) (tshig gi tshul)
  2. general (spyi'i tshul)
  3. hidden (sbas pa'i tshul)
  4. ultimate (mthar thug gi tshul)

Further Reading

  • Robert Thurman. 'Vajra Hermeneutics' in Donald S. Lopez (ed.), Buddhist Hermeneutics. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1993
  • Appendix 1. The Six Limits & Four Modes pp.161-166 in The Light of Wisdom Volume 1. Root text by Padmasambhava and commentary by Jamgön Kongtrül the Great. Published by Shambhala Publications ISBN 0-87773-566-2

Internal Links