Difference between revisions of "Mulamadhyamaka-karika"

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There are twenty-seven chapters:
There are twenty-seven chapters:
#Examination of Conditions<br>
#Examination of Conditions (Skt. ''Pratyayaparīkṣā'')<br>
#Examination of Motion<br>
#Examination of Motion (Skt. ''Gatāgataparīkṣā'')<br>
#Examination of the Senses<br>
#Examination of the Senses (Skt. ''Cakṣurādīndriyaparīkṣā'')<br>
#Examination of the [[Skandhas]]<br>
#Examination of the [[Skandhas]] (Skt. ''Skandhaparīkṣā'')<br>
#Examination of the [[Eighteen dhatus|Dhatus]]<br>
#Examination of the [[Eighteen dhatus|Dhatus]] (Skt. ''Dhātuparīkṣā'')<br>
#Examination of Desire and the Desirous<br>
#Examination of Desire and the Desirous (Skt. ''Rāgaraktaparīkṣā'')<br>
#Examination of the [[Conditioned]]<br>
#Examination of the [[Conditioned]] (Skt. ''Saṃskṛtaparīkṣā'')<br>
#Examination of the Agent and Action<br>
#Examination of the Agent and Action (Skt. ''Karmakārakaparīkṣā'')<br>
#Examination of the Prior Entity<br>
#Examination of the Prior Entity (Skt. ''Pūrvaparīkṣā'')<br>
#Examination of Fire and Fuel<br>
#Examination of Fire and Fuel (Skt. ''Agnīndhanaparīkṣā'')<br>
#Examination of the Initial and Final Limits<br>
#Examination of the Initial and Final Limits (Skt. ''Pūrvaparakoṭiparīkṣā'')<br>
#Examination of Suffering<br>
#Examination of Suffering (Skt. ''Duḥkhaparīkṣā'')<br>
#Examination of Compounded Phenomena<br>
#Examination of Compounded Phenomena (Skt. ''Saṃskāraparīkṣā'')<br>
#Examination of Connection<br>
#Examination of Connection (Skt. ''Saṃsargaparīkṣā'')<br>
#Examination of Essence<br>
#Examination of Essence (Skt. ''Svabhāvaparīkṣā'')<br>
#Examination of Bondage<br>
#Examination of Bondage (Skt. ''Bandhanamokṣaparīkṣā'')<br>
#Examination of Actions and their Fruits<br>
#Examination of Actions and their Fruits (Skt. ''Karmaphalaparīkṣa'')<br>
#Examination of Self and Entities<br>
#Examination of Self and Entities (Skt. ''Ātmaparīkṣā'')<br>
#Examination of Time<br>
#Examination of Time (Skt. ''Kālaparīkṣā'')<br>
#Examination of Combination<br>
#Examination of Combination (Skt. ''Sāmagrīparīkṣā'')<br>
#Examination of Becoming and Destruction<br>
#Examination of Becoming and Destruction (Skt. ''Saṃbhavavibhavaparīkṣā'')<br>
#Examination of the [[Tathagata]]<br>
#Examination of the [[Tathagata]] (Skt. ''Tathāgataparīkṣā'')<br>
#Examination of Errors<br>
#Examination of Errors (Skt. ''Viparyāsaparīkṣā'')<br>
#Examination of the [[Four Noble Truths]]<br>
#Examination of the [[Four Noble Truths]] (Skt. ''Āryasatyaparīkṣā'')<br>
#Examination of [[Nirvana]]<br>
#Examination of [[Nirvana]] (Skt. ''Nirvānaparīkṣā'')<br>
#Examination of the [[Twelve nidanas|Twelve Links]]<br>
#Examination of the [[Twelve nidanas|Twelve Links]] (Skt. ''Dvādaśāṅgaparīkṣā'')<br>
#Examination of Views<br>
#Examination of Views (Skt. ''Dṛṣṭiparīkṣā'')<br>
==Tibetan Text==
==Tibetan Text==

Revision as of 03:44, 29 September 2017


Mulamadhyamika-karika (Skt. Prajñā-nāma-mūlamadhyamakakārikā; Tib. དབུ་མ་རྩ་བ་ཤེས་རབ་, Uma Tsawa Sherab, Wyl. dbu ma rtsa ba shes rab; Trad. Chin. 中論), The Root Verses on the Wisdom of the Middle Way — the most famous and important treatise on Madhyamika philosophy, composed by the great master Nagarjuna. It is included among the so-called "thirteen great texts", which form the core of the curriculum in most shedras and on which Khenpo Shenga provided commentaries.


There are twenty-seven chapters:

  1. Examination of Conditions (Skt. Pratyayaparīkṣā)
  2. Examination of Motion (Skt. Gatāgataparīkṣā)
  3. Examination of the Senses (Skt. Cakṣurādīndriyaparīkṣā)
  4. Examination of the Skandhas (Skt. Skandhaparīkṣā)
  5. Examination of the Dhatus (Skt. Dhātuparīkṣā)
  6. Examination of Desire and the Desirous (Skt. Rāgaraktaparīkṣā)
  7. Examination of the Conditioned (Skt. Saṃskṛtaparīkṣā)
  8. Examination of the Agent and Action (Skt. Karmakārakaparīkṣā)
  9. Examination of the Prior Entity (Skt. Pūrvaparīkṣā)
  10. Examination of Fire and Fuel (Skt. Agnīndhanaparīkṣā)
  11. Examination of the Initial and Final Limits (Skt. Pūrvaparakoṭiparīkṣā)
  12. Examination of Suffering (Skt. Duḥkhaparīkṣā)
  13. Examination of Compounded Phenomena (Skt. Saṃskāraparīkṣā)
  14. Examination of Connection (Skt. Saṃsargaparīkṣā)
  15. Examination of Essence (Skt. Svabhāvaparīkṣā)
  16. Examination of Bondage (Skt. Bandhanamokṣaparīkṣā)
  17. Examination of Actions and their Fruits (Skt. Karmaphalaparīkṣa)
  18. Examination of Self and Entities (Skt. Ātmaparīkṣā)
  19. Examination of Time (Skt. Kālaparīkṣā)
  20. Examination of Combination (Skt. Sāmagrīparīkṣā)
  21. Examination of Becoming and Destruction (Skt. Saṃbhavavibhavaparīkṣā)
  22. Examination of the Tathagata (Skt. Tathāgataparīkṣā)
  23. Examination of Errors (Skt. Viparyāsaparīkṣā)
  24. Examination of the Four Noble Truths (Skt. Āryasatyaparīkṣā)
  25. Examination of Nirvana (Skt. Nirvānaparīkṣā)
  26. Examination of the Twelve Links (Skt. Dvādaśāṅgaparīkṣā)
  27. Examination of Views (Skt. Dṛṣṭiparīkṣā)

Tibetan Text



It is said there were eight important commentaries on the text in India, but only four of them have been translated into Tibetan and subsequently found their way into the Tengyur.

  • Akutobhayā (Skt. Akutobhayā, Wyl. dbu ma rtsa ba'i 'grel pa ga las 'jigs med) [1]
  • Buddhapalita, Mula Madhyamaka Vritti (Skt. Mūla-madhyamaka-vṛtti, in Tibetan referred to as the Buddhapalita commentary; Wyl. dbu ma rtsa ba'i 'grel pa buddha pā li ta)
  • Bhavaviveka, The Wisdom Lamp: A Commentary on the Root Verses on the Wisdom of the Middle Way (Skt. Prajñā-pradīpa-mūla-madhyamaka-vṛtti, Wyl. dbu ma'i rtsa ba'i 'grel pa shes rab sgron ma)
TBRC-tag.png དབུ་མ་རྩ་བའི་འགྲེལ་པ་ཚིག་གསལ་བ་, dbu ma rtsa ba'i 'grel pa tshig gsal ba


TBRC-tag.png དབུ་མ་རྩ་བའི་ཚིག་ལེའུར་བྱས་པ་ཤེས་རབ་ཅེས་བྱ་བའི་མཆན་འགྲེལ་, dbu ma rtsa ba'i tshig le'ur byas pa shes rab ces bya ba'i mchan 'grel
TBRC-tag.png དབུ་མ་རྩ་བའི་མཆན་འགྲེལ་གནས་ལུགས་རབ་གསལ་ཀླུ་དབང་དགོངས་རྒྱན་, dbu ma rtsa ba'i mchan 'grel gnas lugs rab gsal klu dbang dgongs rgyan


  • Garfield, Jay. The Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way. Oxford University Press 1995, ISBN 978-0195093360
  • Inada, Kenneth. Nagarjuna: A Translation of his Mulamadhyamikakarika. Tokyo: The Hokuseido Press, 1970, ISBN 978-0893460761
  • Kalupahana, David. Nagarjuna: The Philosophy of the Middle Way. Albany: State University, 1986, ISBN 978-0887061493
  • Nagarjuna. The Root Stanzas on the Middle Way (translated by Padmakara Translation Group). Padmakara, 2008, ISBN 978-1611803426
  • Streng, Frederik. Emptiness: A Study in Religious Meaning. Nashville: Abdingdon Press 1967, ISBN 978-0687117086


  1. Some attribute the text to Nagarjuna, but others cite the fact that the text quotes Aryadeva as evidence that it could not have been composed by Nagarjuna, who was Aryadeva's teacher.

Further Reading

  • Khenpo Tsültrim Gyamtso, The Sun of Wisdom, translated and edited by Ari Goldfield, Boston: Shambhala Publications, 2003, ISBN 978-1570629990

Internal Links

External Links

  • Chapters 18, 24 & 26 translated into French and English by the Padmakara Translation Group and published on the occasion of the teachings by His Holiness the Dalai Lama, Nantes, 15—20 August 2008. Available at www.oceandesagesse.org