Six paramitas

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Bodhisattva sangha from the Longchen Nyingtik Field of Merit

The six paramitas or 'transcendent perfections' (Skt. ṣaṭpāramitā; Tib. parol tu chinpa druk; Wyl. pha rol tu phyin pa drug) comprise the training of a bodhisattva, which is bodhichitta in action.

  1. Generosity (Skt. dāna; Tib. jinpa): to cultivate the attitude of generosity.
  2. Discipline (Skt. śīla; Tib. tsultrim): refraining from harm.
  3. Patience (Skt. kṣānti; Tib. zöpa): the ability not to be perturbed by anything.
  4. Diligence (Skt. vīrya; Tib. tsöndrü): to find joy in what is virtuous, positive or wholesome.
  5. Meditative concentration (Skt. dhyāna; Tib. samten): not to be distracted.
  6. Wisdom (Skt. prajñā; Tib. sherab): the perfect discrimination of phenomena, all knowable things.

The first five paramitas correspond to the accumulation of merit, and the sixth to the accumulation of wisdom.

Written Sources


  • Fortunate Aeon Sutra {See The Fortunate Aeon: How the Thousand Buddhas Became Enlightened (Berkeley: Dharma Publishing, 1986), Vol. One, pages 97-477.}


The six paramitas are mentioned and explained in many of the most important Indian sources, such as

Further Reading

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