Three types of miraculous ability

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The three types of miraculous ability (Tib. ཆོ་འཕྲུལ་རྣམ་པ་གསུམ་, chotrul nampa sum; Wyl. cho 'phrul rnam pa gsum), by means of which a Buddha teaches, are:

  1. Miraculous ability of his magical form (Tib. སྐུ་རྫུ་འཕྲུལ་གྱི་ཆོ་འཕྲུལ་, Wyl. sku rdzu 'phrul gyi cho 'phrul). Through the miraculous ability of his magical form, he is able to attract disciples who are not already included within the gathering and inspire devotion in those who have gathered.
  2. Miraculous ability of his guiding speech (Tib. གསུང་རྗེས་སུ་བསྟན་པའི་ཆོ་འཕྲུལ་, Wyl. gsung rjes su bstan pa'i cho 'phrul) Through the miraculous ability of his guiding speech, he teaches in accordance with beings’ particular capacities, speaking with the voice of Brahma in all the various languages of the six classes of living beings.
  3. Miraculous ability of his universally communicating mind (Tib. ཐུགས་ཀུན་ཏུ་བརྗོད་པའི་ཆོ་འཕྲུལ་, Wyl. thugs kun tu brjod pa'i cho 'phrul) Through the miraculous ability of his universally communicating mind, he is able to teach the assembly precisely according to their mental receptivity and the keenness of their faculties.[1]


  1. Patrul Rinpoche, Preliminary Points To be Explained when Teaching the Buddha's Word or the Treatises, translated by Adam Pearcey.