Twofold certainty

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The panditas of Vikramashila would present the classification of the doctrine by means of the twofold certainty (Tib. ངེས་པ་གཉིས་, ngepa nyi, Wyl. nges pa gnyis):

  • establishing the certainty that what was being taught had actually been spoken by the Buddha; and
  • establishing the certainty that what was being taught was the genuine and sublime dharma.

In this way they established the authenticity of both the teacher and the teaching. While the teaching style of Nalanda has been maintained down to the present day, the teaching style of Vikramashila no longer exists within Tibetan Buddhism.[1]


  1. Khenpo Chöga’s oral explanation of Khenpo Kunpal’s commentary (Drops of Nectar) on the Bodhicharyavatara, translated by Andreas Kretschmar, Ch. 1. page 324