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Offerings (Skt. pūjā; Tib. མཆོད་པ་, chöpa, Wyl. mchod pa) are the various inner and outer things that are presented with an intention to physically, verbally, and mentally please and revere the recipient. Generally, offerings can be distinguished as being either worldly or transcendent, surpassed or unsurpassed, or presented in actuality or imagined, and also with regard to the recipient, intention, and substances that are offered.


In terms of classification there are outer, inner and secret offerings.

Outer, common offerings, are the offerings that are worthy as pleasing gifts in the world. These well-known offerings are mentioned in the outer tantras of mantra.

The inner, special offerings are unique to inner mantra and are included within the offering substances, support substances, amendment substances, and accomplishment substances.

The secret, marvellous offering is to offer the five poisons as the five wisdoms. The offering of appearance and existence as great bliss is made by undertaking activity, such as union and liberation, by means of the view of great purity and equality, the meditation of appearance and existence manifesting as the ground, and the conduct of self-liberating whatever arises.

Further Reading

  • Jamgön Mipham, Luminous Essence—A Guide to the Guhyagarbha Tantra, translated by Dharmachakra Translation Committee (Ithaca: Snow Lion, 2009)
  • Ju Mipham Jampal Gyepa'i Dorje, Essence of Clear Light: An Overview of the Secret Commentary "Thorough Dispelling of Darkness throughout the Ten Directions", translated by Lama Chönam and Sangye Khandro of the Light of Berotsana Translation Group, (Ithaca: Snow Lion, 2010)

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