Concessive particle, "ornament gather particle", རྒྱན་སྡུད་ཀྱི་སྒྲ་, ཚིག་རྒྱན་

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WORK IN PROGRESS: the grammar articles are being edited for wiki publication. During editing, the content might be incomplete, out of sequence or even misleading.

Articles on Tibetan Grammar
1. Introduction
2. Formation of the Tibetan Syllable
3. Formation of the Tibetan Word
4. First case: ming tsam
5. agentive particle
6. Connective Particle
7. La don particles
8. La don particles—Notes
9. Originative case
10. Verbs
11. Verbs—Notes
12. Syntactic particles

by Stefan J. E.

Concessive particle, "ornament gather particle", རྒྱན་སྡུད་ཀྱི་སྒྲ་, ཚིག་རྒྱན་


last letter of the word particle example: word with particle
ག་, ད་, བ་, ས་, དྲག་[1] ཀྱང༌ རྟག་ཀྱང༌། འཐད་ཀྱང༌། ཐོབ་ཀྱང༌། ཤེས་ཀྱང༌། ཕྱིནད་ཀྱང༌།
ང་, ན་, མ་, འ་, ར་, ལ་ ཡང༌ ཁང་ཡང༌། སྔོན་ཡང༌། ལམ་ཡང༌། མཐའ་ཡང༌། འགྱུར་ཡང༌། འཕེལ་ཡང༌།
"no postfix letter" མཐའ་མེད་ འང་ or ཡང༌ དེའང༌། or དེ་ཡང༌།


one      not exist
not even one
benefit little       not exist
[There] is not even a little benefit.

to come v.i. ཐ་མི་དད་པ་
འོངས་པ།  འོང་བ།  འོང་བ། 
past pres. fut. imp.
friend   best       not   came
Not even the best friend(s) came.

Adding or emphasising

  • Tibetan grammatical term: སྡུད་པའི་དོན་
to want v.i. ཐ་མི་དད་པ་
འདོད་པ།  འདོད་པ།  འདོད་པ། 
past pres. fut. imp.
sentient beings other     happiness want
also other sentient beings desire happiness

to make v.t. ཐ་དད་པ་
བྱས་པ།  བྱེད་པ།  བྱ་བ།  བྱོས།
past pres. fut. imp.
to attain v.t.(!) ཐ་མི་དད་པ་(!)
ཐོབ་པ།  འཐོབ་པ།  འཐོབ་པ། 
past pres. fut. imp.

those           freedom riches attain obstruction make
Also those create obstruction for the attainment of the freedom and riches

to kill v.t. ཐ་དད་པ་
བསད་པ།  གསོད་པ།  གསད་པ།  སོད།
past pres. fut. imp.
enemy   son plural     killed
Also / even the enemie's sons were killed.

women      son  plural    enemy  plural     killed
Even woman and children were killed by the enemies.

supreme             supreme               result
the result [which] is more supreme than even the supreme

peacock       beautiful
even more beautiful than [a] peacock


  • Tibetan grammatical term: མཐུན་པའི་ཚིག་རྒྱན་
particularly  compassion arise
compassion arises especially for...

meaning great all  know  accomplish accomplish ability time this
[now] at this time [having gained this precious human birth] when [you] have the ability to certainly accomplish the great objective, the [state of] omniscience ...

The usage with duplicated (root of the) verb or adjective does not seem to occur very often, (but is mentioned in many Tibetan grammar texts). See also: H. Stoddard and N. Tournadre.[2] Examples given in there are: ཉི་མ་གསལ་ཡང་གསལ། "the sun is very bright" and རྒྱལ་ཁ་ཐོབ་ཀྱང་ཐོབ། "[I] will certainly win".

Topic, reverential, pleonastic or meter-filler

to arise v.i. ཐ་མི་དད་པ་
སྐྱེས་པ།  སྐྱེ་བ།  སྐྱེ་བ། 
past pres. fut. imp.
particularly  compassion arise
compassion arises especially for...

དེ་ཡང་ / དེའང་
with regard to that, in this regard; furthermore, moreover


སྣང་ཡང་སེམས།་་་ སྟོང་ཡང་སེམས་ཡིན།
appearance mind      empty       mind  is
Appearance is mind, and emptiness is mind as well.

to get, to obtain v.t.(!) ཐ་མི་དད་པ་(!)
ཐོབ་པ།  འཐོབ་པ།  འཐོབ་པ། 
past pres. fut. imp.
མག་པས་བག་མ་མཛེས་པ་ཡང་ཐོབ། རིན་ཆེན་མང་པོ་ཡང་ཐོབ།
bridegroom bride beautiful      got        jewel     many       got
The bridegroom [not only] got a beautiful bride, [but] also many jewels.

བགོ་བ་ཡང་མེད། བཟའ་བ་ཡང་མེད་དོ།།
clothes   not have   food        not have
Having neither clothes nor food.

འོད་སྲུངས་སེམས་ནི་ནང་ན་ཡང་མེད། ཕྱི་རོལ་ན་ཡང་མེད། གཉིས་ཀའི་པར་ལ་ཡང་མི་དམིགས་སོ།
Kashyapa   mind       in      not exist  outside    not exist       both     between     not  observe
Kashyapa, mind doesn’t exist inside, also doesn’t exist outside, and is not observed in between the two as well.

After the verb

After the root of the verb: contradiction, limiting
  • Tibetan grammatical term: ཕྱི་ཚིག་འགལ་བ་
to grasp v.t. ཐ་དད་པ་
བཟུང་བ།  འཛིན་པ།  གཟུང་བ།  ཟུང།
past pres. fut. imp.
impermanence evident      permanent grasp
Even though impermanence [is] evident, [one is] grasping [at phenomena] as permanent.

to search v.t. ཐ་དད་པ་
བཙལ་བ།  འཚོལ་བ།  བཙལ་བ།  ཚོལ།
past pres. fut. imp.
to find v.t.(!) ཐ་མི་དད་པ་(!)
བརྙེས་པ།  བརྙེས་པ།  བརྙེས་པ། 
past pres. fut. imp.

searched  money  not found
Although searched for, the money was not found.

intelligent one that learned  pride  not have
Even though this intelligent one is learned [he] has no pride.

After the verb as second particle: "even"
to sleep v.i. ཐ་མི་དད་པ་
སད་པ།  སད་པ།  སད་པ། 
past pres. fut. imp.
to forget v.t.(!) ཐ་མི་དད་པ་(!)
བརྗེད་པ།  བརྗེད་པ།  བརྗེད་པ། 
past pres. fut. imp.

sleep (h.) wake up      talk      plural        forgot
Even after waking up, [he] didn’t forget the instructions.

cause in accord  result        if    human born    life short   illness many  become
[Regarding] the result resembling the cause, even if one is born as [a] human, the lifespan will be short and the illnesses many.

generally many
Even though (there are) generally many,...

After the verb with a pronoun before verb

The uniques of this structure is, that it is rather translated as if the ཀྱང་ would come with the pronoun before the verb than with the verb itself. E.g., rather ལས་ཅི་ལ་ཐུག་ཀྱང་ "whatever karma [I] met" than "even [when] meeting with what[ever] karma".

Note: J.Rockwell, Jr.[3] views this as a form of distributive.
to meet v.i. ཐ་མི་དད་པ་
ཐུག་པ།  ཐུག་པ།  ཐུག་པ། 
past pres. fut. imp.
karma what meet
whatever karma [I] met

to teach v.t. ཐ་དད་པ་
བསྟན་པ།  སྟོན་པ།  བསྟན་པ།  སྟོན།
past pres. fut. imp.
who    teach
to whomever [he] teaches

Note: ཡང་

ཡང་ is also particle by itself that does not belong to the concessive particle. See Particle ཡང་ for its usage.


  1. Introduction to the Tibetan Particles, 2.1.1 Da drag ད་དྲག་
  2. Heather Stoddard and Nicolas Tournadre: Le Clair Miroir—Enseignement de la Grammaire Tibetaine. p.56
  3. J.Rockwell, Jr.: A Primer for Classical Literary Tibetan