Four Noble Truths
The Four Noble Truths (Skt. catvāryāryasatyā; Tib. pakpé denpa shyi; Wyl. 'phags pa'i bden pa bzhi) or the Four Realities of the Aryas, were taught by Buddha Shakyamuni as the central theme of the so-called first turning of the wheel of the Dharma after his attainment of enlightenment. They are:
- the truth (or reality) of suffering (Skt. duḥkha-satya) which is to be understood,
- the truth (or reality) of the origin of suffering (Skt. samudaya-satya), which is to be abandoned,
- the truth (or reality) of cessation (Skt. nirodha-satya), which is to be actualized, and
- the truth (or reality) of the path (Skt. mārga-satya), which is to be relied upon.
Cause & Effect
The four truths can be divided into two pairs of cause and effect, known as the cause and effect of 'thorough affliction' (Skt. saṃkliṣṭa; Wyl. kun nyon) or samsara, and the cause and effect of 'complete purification' (Skt. vyavadāna; Wyl. rnam byang) or nirvana.
Sixteen Aspects of the Four Noble Truths
9. Peace (Skt. śānta; Tib. ཞི་བ་)
10. Cessation (Skt. nirodha; Tib. འགོག་པ་)
11. Perfection (Skt. praṇīta; Tib. གྱ་ནོམ་པ་)
12. True Deliverance (Skt. niḥsaraṇa; Tib. ངེས་འབྱུང་, Wyl. nges 'byung)
- Jamgön Mipham Rinpoche, Gateway to Knowledge, VOL II (Hong Kong, Boudhanath & Esby: Rangjung Yeshe Publications, 2000).
- Kangyur Rinpoche, Treasury of Precious Qualities (Boston & London: Shambhala, 2001), pages 67-84 & 'Appendix 3'.
- Ringu Tulku, Daring Steps Towards Fearlessness: The Three Vehicles of Buddhism, Snow Lion, 2005
- Appendix 2, pp.167-168 in ‘The Light of Wisdom’ Volume 1. Root text by Padmasambhava and commentary by Jamgön Kongtrül the Great. Published by Shambhala Publications ISBN 0-87773-566-2