Kumbhanda (Skt. kumbhāṇḍa; Tib. གྲུལ་བུམ་, drulbum, Wyl. grul bum) — a class of demons said to dwell in cemeteries. Norbu/Clemente (1995) says that they live in the sea and have human bodies with animal heads. Virudhaka is sometimes named as the lord of the kumbhanda.
- Namkhai Norbu, Drung De'u and Bön, translated by Adriano Clemente, Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, 1995 p.248, n.10