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Opposition (Skt. virodha/viruddha; Tib. འགལ་བ་, Wyl. 'gal ba) is defined as "a situation in which two entities are mutually incompatible".[1]


  1. Opposition of non-coexistence or simultaneous opposition (ལྷན་ཅིག་མི་གནས་འགལ་བ་, lhan cig mi gnas 'gal), which is itself divided into factual opposition (དོན་འགལ་, don 'gal), such as hot and cold, and mental opposition (བློ་འགལ་, blo 'gal), such as self-grasping and the realization of selflessness
  2. Opposition of mutual exclusion (ཕན་ཚུན་སྤངས་འགལ་, phan tshun spangs 'gal), which is itself divided into direct opposition (དངོས་འགལ་, dngos 'gal), such as permanence and impermanence, and indirect opposition (བརྒྱུད་འགལ་, brgyud 'gal), such as produced and permanent.

Alternative Translations

  • Antithesis or contradiction (Padmakara)
  • Contrary
  • Disjunction-exclusion (van der Kuijp)
  • Incompatibility


  1. དངོས་པོ་གཉིས་ཕན་ཚུན་གནོད་བྱ་དང་གནོད་བྱེད་དུ་གྱུར་པ་, dngos po gnyis phan tshun gnod bya dang gnod byed du gyur pa