Question particle, differentiating and including particle, འབྱེད་སྡུད་

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WORK IN PROGRESS: the grammar articles are being edited for wiki publication. During editing, the content might be incomplete, out of sequence or even misleading.

Articles on Tibetan Grammar
1. Introduction
2. Formation of the Tibetan Syllable
3. Formation of the Tibetan Word
4. First case: ming tsam
5. agentive particle
6. Connective Particle
7. La don particles
8. La don particles—Notes
9. Originative case
10. Verbs
11. Verbs—Notes
12. Syntactic particles

by Stefan J. E.

Question particle, differentiating and including particle, འབྱེད་སྡུད་

This particle after a clause can mark a question or mean "or" or "and".


The final letter of the last word is duplicated and placed as an extra syllable with an added མ་.

  • E.g. རྟག་གམ།, བྱུང་ངམ།, ཡོད་དམ།, ཡིན་ནམ།, ཁྱབ་བམ།, སྒོམ་མམ།, ཕྱིར་རམ།, འབྲལ་ལམ།, བྱས་སམ།, གྱུརད་ཏམ།.

In the case of the final letter འ་ the མ་ is added to the འ་ of the word without a duplicated letter.

  • E.g. འདའ་ and འམ་ becomes འདའམ།.

In the case of no postfix letter, མཐའ་མེད་, an འམ་ is added to the word or added separately.

  • E.g. བྱ་ and འམ་ becomes བྱའམ། or བྱ་འམ།.

Note: ནམ་ when coming before the verb can also be the temporal qualifier or interrogative "when" or "When?".


person that enemy is "?"
Is that person [an] enemy?

"or" or "and"

defiled      karma  virtues   non-virtues
defiled karma, either virtues or non-virtues,... defiled karma, be it virtues or non-virtues...

happiness   suffering            neutral       experience sensation arise
The sensation of the experience of well-being or the experience of suffering or a neutral experience will arise.