Three natures

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Three natures (Skt. trilakṣana or trisvabhāva; Tib. མཚན་ཉིད་གསུམ, tsennyi sum, or རང་བཞིན་གསུམ་, rangshyin sum; Wyl. mtshan nyid gsum or rang bzhin gsum) — the three categories into which the followers of the Mind Only school divide all phenomena:

  1. Imputed (Skt. parikalpita; Tib. ཀུན་བརྟགས་, Wyl. kun btags)
  2. Dependent (Skt. paratantra; Tib. གཞན་དབང་, Wyl. gzhan dbang)
  3. Truly Existent (Skt. pariniṣpanna; Tib. ཡོངས་གྲུབ་, Wyl. yongs grub)

Alternative Translations

  • Imaginary, Other-dependent & Perfect (Karl Brunnhölzl)
  • Imagined, Other-dependent & Consummate (Jay L. Garfield)
  • Imputation, Dependence & the Absolute (Lama Chökyi Nyima)

Canonical Literature

Further Reading

  • Garfield, Jay L. 'Vasubandhu's Treatise on the Three Natures' in Empty Words: Buddhist Philosophy and Cross-Cultural Interpretation, Oxford University Press, 2002
  • Karr, Andy. Contemplating Reality (Boston: Shambala Publications, 2007), Chapter 9

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