Three types of investigation

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The three types of investigation (Tib. དཔྱད་གསུམ་, Wyl. dpyad pa gsum) refer to the process of determining the validity of a scripture[1].

  1. the demonstration of what is evident (mngon gyur) is not invalidated by direct perception (mngon sum),
  2. the demonstration of what is hidden (lkog gyur) is not invalidated by inference (rjes dpag),
  3. the demonstration of what is extremely hidden (shin tu lkog gyur) is not contradicted (internally) by previous or later statements.[2]

from Mipham Rinpoche, Words to Delight My Teacher Manjughosha[3]

References

  1. Translation from: Douglas S. Duckworth, Mipam on Buddha-Nature, The Ground of the Nyingma Tradition, p.221n55
  2. The third point is sometimes abbreviated as the criteria of scriptural authority. See Mipham Rinpoche: The Adornment of the Middle Way, p.393, n115.
  3. Mipham Rinpoche: The Adornment of the Middle Way, p.375: "But here we have the perfect teachings of the Tathagata, excellent in their beginning, middle, and end. These are like gold that is smelted, cut, and polished; they can withstand threefold examination and are not faulted by perception, inference, or verbal inconsistency."