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Offerings (Skt. pūjā; Tib. མཆོད་པ་, chöpa, Wyl. mchod pa) are the various inner and outer things that are presented with an intention to physically, verbally, and mentally please and revere the recipient. Generally, offerings can be distinguished as being either worldly or transcendent, surpassed or unsurpassed, or presented in actuality or imagined, and also with regard to the recipient, intention, and substances that are offered.


In terms of classification there are outer, inner and secret offerings.

Outer, common offerings, are the offerings that are worthy as pleasing gifts in the world. These well-known offerings are mentioned in the outer tantras of mantra.

The inner, special offerings are unique to inner mantra and are included within the offering substances, support substances, amendment substances, and accomplishment substances.

The secret, marvellous offering is to offer the five poisons as the five wisdoms. The offering of appearance and existence as great bliss is made by undertaking activity, such as union and liberation, by means of the view of great purity and equality, the meditation of appearance and existence manifesting as the ground, and the conduct of self-liberating whatever arises.

Sometimes the offering of reality itself is added as a fourth category of offering.

Four Easy to Accomplish & Beneficial Methods

Dodrupchen Jikme Tenpe Nyima writes in his Guide to Sang Practice[1]:

It is by making illusory offerings through illusory practice that we can complete the gathering of illusory accumulations. Through this cause—namely the accumulation of merit—we can gain the result, which is the perfection of wisdom.
Four such methods which involve very little difficulty and yet are exceptionally meaningful and beneficial are the offerings of
The individual who practises these regularly and diligently will gather the accumulations, purify the obscurations, and, in particular, will pacify any obstacles and factors that prevent the accomplishment of the Dharma and awakening in the present lifetime, becoming free of them like the sun emerging from the clouds. Since they also support our progress along the path leading to the supreme attainment of Dzogpachenpo, it makes sense for us to put our energy into practising them.


  1. A Guide to Sang Practice available on Lotsawa House

Further Reading

  • Jamgön Mipham, Luminous Essence—A Guide to the Guhyagarbha Tantra, translated by Dharmachakra Translation Committee (Ithaca: Snow Lion, 2009)
  • Ju Mipham Jampal Gyepa'i Dorje, Essence of Clear Light: An Overview of the Secret Commentary "Thorough Dispelling of Darkness throughout the Ten Directions", translated by Lama Chönam and Sangye Khandro of the Light of Berotsana Translation Group, (Ithaca: Snow Lion, 2010)

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